Bibliography

   CONTENTS
   Introduction 488
   I. General 493
   1. Bibliographies and Research Guides 493
   2. Directories, Handbooks, Statistical Abstracts, and Yearbooks 494
   3. Guides 494
   4. Travel and Description 494
   II. History 496
   1. General 496
   2. Prehistory 497
   3. Dynastic History (1st Millennium to 19th Century CE) 497
   4. Colonial and Pacific War Era (19th-20th Centuries CE) 500
   5. Post-Independence Era (1948-1987) 506
   6. The Political Crisis of 1988 508
   III. Contemporary Burma (Myanmar) 509
   1. Population, Ethnicity, and Languages 509
   2. Economics and Economic Engagement 511
   3. Politics 514
   4. Foreign Relations and Security-Military Affairs 519
   5. Human Rights 520
   6. Social and Public Health Issues 522
   7. Religion, Religion in Society 523
   IV. Cultural Expression 525
   1. Literature 525
   2. Architecture, Plastic, and Visual Arts 526
   3. Performing Arts 529
   INTRODUCTION
   Following the tumultuous events of 1988, Burma's political, social, and humanitarian crises gained international attention. Before that year, the country was largely isolated from the rest of the world and was of interest to only a small number of scholars and specialists. But as this bibliography shows, a growing quantity of recent publications deal with human rights and ethnic minority issues, the dynamics of military rule, the democratic opposition, and the country's postsocialist "open" economy (including the controversy over whether foreign countries should implement sanctions against the State Peace and Development Council or engage with it economically).
   In addition, the diffusion of online information services since the mid1990s has given both the democratic opposition and the military regime a new medium through which to present their views. Probably the single greatest change in Burma-related information over the past decade has been the crucial role of the Internet in reporting developments inside the country to a worldwide audience. For example, the unrest in Rangoon connected with labor strikes and the U Thant incident in 1974, arguably a precursor for the more massive demonstrations of 1988, was little known outside the country. It merited brief discussion in an essay by Raja Segaram Arumgam in the 1975 edition of Southeast Asian Affairs, and it was only in 1989 that Andrew Selth published a detailed English-language account ("Death of a Hero: The U Thant Disturbances in Burma, December 1974"). However, the Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (Altsean), a Bangkok-based NGO, provided via e-mail attachment a detailed and thoroughly cited report on the May 30, 2003, attack on Aung San Suu Kyi and her supporters in northern Burma ("Briefing: Black Friday and the Crackdown on the NLD") only 12 days after the event. Doubtless the full story of "Black Friday" will not be known for many years, but the speed, volume, and ubiquity of online information delivery means that Burma is no longer a "closed" country despite the efforts of the SPDC to control domestic information technology and present an alluring face to the outside world.
   One of the oldest online information sources is the BurmaNet News (www.burmanet.org), which was established in 1994 and provides an electronic "clipping file" of newspaper and periodical articles; it is posted to subscribers about five times weekly. But the most comprehensive source is the Online Burma/Myanmar Library (www.burmalibrary.org), which encompasses a vast and growing amount of information on contemporary developments and some older sources, such as the Burma Press Summary, a digest of articles from the Working People's Daily compiled during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Through the Online Burma Library, one can also access scores of other Burmarelated sites. The Irrawaddy online (www.irrawaddy.org) is another excellent and timely source, which provides daily updates on developments inside the country. The British Broadcasting Corporation also releases informative articles on Burma through its online news site (news.bbc.co.uk) as well as its special Burma page (www.bbc.co.uk/burmese). For readers seeking SPDC perspectives, the online Myanmar Times and Weekly Review (www.myanmar.com/ myanmartimes) is upbeat, colorful, and sometimes informative; however, following the purge of Prime Minister Khin Nyunt and his Military Intelligence subordinates in fall 2004, the future of both the online and hardcopy Myanmar Times remains in doubt.
   For many years, the most detailed English language sources on developments in Burma have been the Thailand-based dailies Bangkok Post and Nation and the Hong Kong-based weeklies Asiaweek and Far Eastern Economic Review. Throughout the 1990s, Bertil Lintner, a Review correspondent with a special interest in Burma's ethnic minority areas, was considered by many observers to be one of the most informative journalistic sources on the country. But Asiaweek has ceased publication, and in 2004 the Far Eastern Economic Review ended its newsmagazine format. Articles on Burma turn up occasionally in the pages of such publications as The New York Times and the International Herald Tribune. But outside of Thailand, the tendency for the country to slip between the cracks of the mainstream media makes the online sources even more essential. Annual summaries of events in Burma are published in the January-February issue of the University of California's Asian Survey and Southeast Asian Affairs, the latter published yearly by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore. The Asia Yearbook, published by the Far Eastern Economic Review, has been discontinued, but annual issues going back to the Ne Win era provide detailed descriptions of politics, economics, and foreign relations. Hardcopy periodicals specializing in Burma include The Irrawaddy magazine, published monthly by the same people who operate The Irrawaddy online, and the quarterly Burma Debate, supported by the Burma Project of the Open Society Institute in New York.
   On the events of 1988-the prodemocracy demonstrations, the emergence of Aung San Suu Kyi as opposition leader, and the bloody seizure of power by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (predecessor of the SPDC)-the principal source remains Lintner's Outrage: The Struggle for Democracy in Burma; unfortunately, Japanese journalist Tanabe Hisao's Biruma Minshuka Undo(Burma's Democracy Movement) has not been translated into English. Dr. Maung Maung's last published work, The 1988 Uprising in Burma, reveals more about the mind of Ne Win's principal "intellectual" spokesman than it does about what took place in the streets of Rangoon, Mandalay, or Sagaing. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's Freedom from Fear and Other Writings includes her epochal "Speech to a Mass Rally at the Shwedagon Pagoda" on August 26, 1988. Further descriptions and analyses of 1988-on what happened and why-are much needed.
   Useful reference works on politics include To Stand and Be Counted: The Suppression of Burma's Members of Parliament, published by the All Burma Students' Democratic Front, and Democracy and Politics in Burma: A Collection of Documents, edited by Marc Weller. Gustaaf Houtman's Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics: Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy includes both a criticism of the "state-building" paradigms of Burmese politics-chiefly Robert H. Taylor's 1987 work, The State in Burma-and an interesting attempt to link the confrontation between the SLORC/SPDC and Daw Suu Kyi to Buddhist values and contrasting concepts of power. Like E. Sarkisyanz's Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution, published in 1965, it is one of the few Western-language discussions of Burma's modern intellectual history and its connection with politics. On this topic, see also Aung San Suu Kyi's lengthy essays in Freedom from Fear: "Intellectual Life in Burma and India under Colonialism" and "Literature and Nationalism in Burma."
   The Tatmadaw, Burma's armed forces, are central to any understanding of Burmese political dynamics. Two recent books-Mary Callahan's Making Enemies: War and the State in Burma and Andrew Selth's Burma's Armed Forces: Power without Glory-provide detailed discussions of its history and development. Concerning the impact of military rule on daily life, see Christina Fink's Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule. Veteran Burma specialist David Steinberg's Burma: The State of Myanmar is a comprehensive introduction to present-day political, economic, and social conditions. In the early 1990s, many economists described postsocialist, natural resource-rich Burma as "the next Asian tiger"; more recently, they have debated why, despite promising fundamentals, the country's economy remains in a state of perpetual crisis. Good analyses are being written by a group of economists at Australia's Macquarie University in the form of Burma Economic Watch, accessible at www.econ.mq.edu.au/BurmaEconomicWatch. Official economic statistics are notoriously unreliable, but the Economist Intelligence Unit's Burma/Myanmar: Country Profile and Burma/Myanmar: Country Reports are among the most credible sources for economic trends, including GDP and inflation figures. For historical economic data, see Teruko Saito and Lee Kin Kiong's Statistics on the Burmese Economy: The 19th and 20th Centuries. Burma's crises in human rights, health, and education are described in detail in Chris Beyrer's War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia; Human Rights Watch's A Modern Form of Slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand; and the Asian Human Rights Commission's Voice of the Hungry Nation. Human rights conditions in the country have been closely monitored since 1988 by international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United Nations Commission for Human Rights, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Labour Organization, all of which have published detailed reports. The Shan Human Rights Foundation and the Karen Human Rights Group publish information on conditions in ethnic minority areas.
   The two most comprehensive accounts of ethnic politics remain Bertil Lintner's Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency since 1948 and Martin Smith's Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity, both of which came out in revised editions in the late 1990s. Lintner's work is especially valuable for its appendixes, including a detailed chronology and brief descriptions of the bewilderingly diverse individuals and organizations involved in ethnic and communist insurgency. Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe's The Shan of Burma: Memoirs of a Shan Exile was published in 1987 but remains an invaluable source on this group's recent history; on the Chins, see works by Lian Sakhong, especially In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity; on the Mons, Ashley South's Mon Nationalism and Civil War in Burma: The Golden Sheldrake; and on the Karens, Jonathan Falla's True Love and Bartholomew: Rebels on the Burmese Border and Ananda Rajah's "Ethnicity, Nationalism and the Nation-State: The Karen in Burma and Thailand." New contributions to the academic study of Burmese history include Thant Myint-U's The Making of Modern Burma and articles by Michael W. Charney, Jacques Leider, Victor Lieberman, Guy Lubeigt, Sunait Chutintaranond, and Dr. Than Tun. Michael Aung-Thwin's views on Burmese history, as reflected in his 1998 book Myth and History in the Early History of Burma: Paradigms, Primary Sources and Prejudices, are controversial in their attempt to turn British colonial historiography on its head. Amply and attractively illustrated, Pamela Gutman's Burma's Lost Kingdoms: The Splendour of Arakan describes a little known but culturally and historically distinct region that until 1784 was independent of the Burman state.
   Although academic studies of dynastic history reach limited audiences, the bibliography shows the continued popularity of publications about World War II by British and American writers, especially war veterans. Historian Louis Allen's massive and authoritative Burma: The Longest War, 1941-1945 not only provides details on the various military campaigns (with maps), but also includes both the Allied and Japanese perspectives and an interesting account, taken from Japanese sources, of General Mutaguchi Renya's disastrous decision to initiate the 1944 Imphal Campaign, an invasion of northeastern India. Another valuable source is Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper's Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945, published in 2004, which recounts wartime events in Burma, India, and the Malay Peninsula.
   One of the best histories of the "Thirty Comrades" is Izumiya Tatsuro's The Minami Organ, translated into English by U Tun Aung Chain and published in Rangoon in 1985. For those interested in Japanese soldiers' experiences in the Burma war, see Kazuo Tamayama and John Nunneley, Tales by Japanese Soldiers. Eric Lomax's The Railroad Man is a story of wartime memories and reconciliation from a former POW who worked on the infamous Thai-Burma Railway. The standard sources on Burmese Buddhism remain Melford E. Spiro's Buddhism and Society: A Great Tradition and Its Burmese Vicissitudes, E. Michael Mendelsohn's Sangha and State in Burma: A Study of Monastic Sectarianism and Leadership, and Winston L. King's A Thousand Lives Away: Buddhism in Contemporary Burma. But more recent studies on Buddhism include those by Guy Lubeigt, Hiroko Kawanami, Bruce Matthews, and Juliane Schober. Articles on nat-worship have been published by Bénédicte Brac de la Perrière and Sarah Bekker. The history of Christian missionary activity in Burma is also well documented, for example, Janet Benge and Geoff Benge in Adoniram Judson: Bound for Burma.
   Relatively little in dynastic era or modern Burmese literature that has yet to be translated into English or other Western languages. Maureen Aung-Thwin's translation of Ma Ma Lay's Not out of Hate was published in 1991, but to this writer's knowledge there exist no-or at least no readily available-English translations of Burma's premier nationalist writer, Thakin Kodaw Hmaing (see Aung San Suu Kyi's discussion of him in "Literature and Nationalism in Burma"). Lack of attention to the country's contemporary literature may reflect the poor conditions under which writers and publishers must operate, the lack of translators outside Burma who could make the best writing available to a global audience, and perhaps also the intense focus on the part of Burmese intellectuals on immediate, political issues. Anna J. Allott's Inked Over, Ripped Out: Burmese Storytellers and the Censors provides a sample of recent short stories and a discussion of the heavy state control that writers must endure.
   The country's sophisticated artistic and architectural heritage is reflected in such attractively illustrated studies as Sylvia Fraser-Lu's Burmese Crafts Past and Present, Alexandra Green and T. Richard Blurton's Burma: Art and Archeology, Ralph Isaac and T. Richard Blurton's Visions from the Golden Land: Burma and the Art of Lacquer, and Pierre Pichard's monumental, multivolume Inventory of Monuments at Pagan. Noel Singer's Old Rangoon: City of the Shwedagon recalls the city's precolonial and colonial past, with excellent photographs. Myanmar Design: Art, Architecture and Design of Burma by John Falconer et al. is an attractively packaged introduction to the country's architecture, visual arts, and handicrafts. Irene Moilanen and Sergey S. Ozhegov's Mirrored in Wood: Burmese Art and Architecture is also recommended. Finally, a large number of outstanding works on Burma fall in the "Travel and Description" category: not only the classic The Burman: His Life and Notions by J. G. Scott ("Shway Yoe"), first published in the 1880s, but also post1988 works, such as Sue Arnold's A Burmese Legacy: Rediscovering My Family, Rory MacLean's Under the Dragon: Travels in a Betrayed Land, and Andrew Marshall's The Trouser People: A Story of Burma in the Shadow of the Empire, all of which provide vivid and sometimes disturbing images of life in military-ruled Burma.
 I. GENERAL
 1. Bibliographies and Research Guides
 ■ Becˇka, Jan. Historical Dictionary of Myanmar. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1995.
 ■ Burma: A Study Guide. Edited by Ronald A. Morse, Helen L. Loerke, et al. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Asia Program, 1987.
 ■ Burmese Studies in Japan, 1868-1985: Literary Guide and Bibliography. Edited by the Burma Studies Group. Tokyo: Burma Research Group, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1985.
 ■ Guide to Universities' Central Library. Rangoon: Union of Myanmar, Ministry of Education, Dept. of Higher Education, Universities Central Library, 1999.
 ■ Herbert, Patricia, M. Burma. World Bibliographical Series 132. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC Clio, 1991.
 ■ ---. "List of Burmese Pro-Democracy [August-September 1988] Publications in the British Library." South-East Asia Library Group Newsletter 34-35 (December 1990): 25-38.
 ■ Shulman, Frank Joseph. Burma: An Annotated Bibliographical Guide to International Doctoral Dissertation Research on Burma, 1898-1985. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, in association with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1986.
 ■ Sun Laichen. "Chinese Historical Sources on Burma." The Journal of Burma Studies 2 (special issue) (1997).
 ■ Tuchrello, William P. "A Survey of Selected Resources for the Study of Burma." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 128-51.
 2. Directories, Handbooks, Statistical Abstracts, and Yearbooks
 ■ Bunge, Frederica M., ed. Burma: A Country Study. 3rd ed. Area Handbook Series. Washington, D.C.: The American University, Foreign Area Studies, 1983.
 ■ The Far East and Australasia. London: Europa Publications, 1969-.
 ■ Hla Tun Aung. Myanmar: The Study of Processes and Patterns. Rangoon: Ministry of Education, National Centre for Human Resources Development, 2003.
 ■ Human Rights Year Book 1998, Burma. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Documentation Unit, National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma; NCGUB Information Office, 1998.
 ■ Scott, James George. Burma: A Handbook of Practical Information. Bibliotheca Orientalis. London: Daniel O'Connor, 1921; Bangkok: Orchid Press, 1999.
 ■ Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Burma: 1983 Population Census. Rangoon: Ministry of Home Affairs, 1986.
 ■ Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific/Annuaire Statistique pour l'Asie et le Pacifique. Bangkok: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), 1966-.
 ■ Statistical Yearbook 2002. Rangoon: Central Statistical Organization, 2002.
 3. Guides
 ■ Burma Action Group. Burma: The Alternative Guide. 2nd ed. London: BAG, 1995.
 ■ Eliot, Joshua, and Jane Bickersteth. Myanmar (Burma) Handbook. Bath, England: Footprint Handbooks, 1997.
 ■ Globetrotter Travel Map: Myanmar. London: Old Saybrook, 1999. Scale 1:1,700,000.
 ■ Martin, Steven, et al. Myanmar (Burma). 8th ed. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet, 2002.
 ■ Saw Myat Yin. Culture Shock! Burma. Singapore: Times Books International, 1994.
 ■ ---. Cultures of the World: Burma. Singapore: Times Books International, 1990.
 ■ Tun Shwe Khine. A Guide to Mahamuni. Rakhine Book Series. Rangoon: U Hla Sein, 1996
 4. Travel and Description
 ■ Abbott, Gerry. Inroads into Burma: A Travellers'Anthology. Oxford in Asia Paperbacks. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press, 1997.
 ■ ---. Back to Mandalay: An Inside View of Burma. Bromley, England: Impact Books, 1990.
 ■ Ainsworth, Leopold. A Merchant Venturer Among the Sea Gypsies: Being a Pioneer's Account of Life on an Island in the Mergui Archipelago. Bangkok: White Lotus, 2000.
 ■ Allott, Anna J. "Burma." In The Traveller's Literary Companion to Southeast Asia, Edited by Alastair Dingwall. Brighton, England: In Print Publishing, 1994.
 ■ Arnold, Sue. A Burmese Legacy: Rediscovering My Family. London: Sceptre, 1995.
 ■ Aung Aung Taik. Visions of Shwedagon. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1989.
 ■ Boucaud, André. Birmanie: sur la piste des seigneurs de la guerre. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1985.
 ■ Boudignon, Françoise. A Letter from Burma. Rangoon: UNICEF, 1984.
 ■ Cangi, Ellen Corwin. Faded Splendour, Golden Past: Urban Images of Burma. Oxford in Asia Paperback. Kuala Lumpur, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
 ■ Collis, Maurice. Land of the Great Image: Being the Experiences of Friar Manrique in Arakan. London: Faber & Faber, 1953.
 ■ ---. Lords of the Sunset: A Tour in the Shan States. London: Faber & Faber, 1938.
 ■ Dhida Saraya. Mandalay: The Capital City, Center of the Universe. Bangkok: Muang Boran Publishing, 1995.
 ■ Everada, Ellis. Burma: Encountering the Land of the Buddhas. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1994.
 ■ Falconer, John, David Odo, and Mandy Sadan. Burma: Frontier Photographs 1918-1935. Edited by Elizabeth Dell. London: Merrell, 2000.
 ■ Grant, Colesworthey. Rough Pencillings of a Rough Trip to Rangoon in 1846. Bangkok: White Orchid, 1995.
 ■ Hall, Fielding H. The Soul of a People. London: Macmillan, 1898.
 ■ Ivanoff, Jacques, and Thierry Lejard, in collaboration with Luca Gansser and
 ■ Gabriella Gansser. A Journey Through the Mergui Archipelago. Bangkok: White Lotus, 2002.
 ■ Khin Myo Chit, and Paw Oo Thet. Festivals and Flowers of the Twelve Burmese Seasons. Bangkok: Orchard Press, 2002.
 ■ Khoo Thwe, Pascal. From the Land of Green Ghosts: A Burmese Odyssey. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.
 ■ MacLean, Rory. Under the Dragon: Travels in a Betrayed Land. London: Flamingo, 1999.
 ■ Marshall, Andrew. The Trouser People: A Story of Burma in the Shadow of the Empire. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 2002.
 ■ Mi Mi Khaing. Burmese Family. Bombay, [India]: Longmans Green, 1946.
 ■ Mirante, Edith T. Burmese Looking Glass: A Human Rights Adventure and a Jungle Revolution. New York: Grove Press, 1993.
 ■ O'Connor, Vincent Clarence Scott. The Silken East: A Record of Life and Travel in Burma. 2 vols. London: Hutchinson, 1904; Bangkok: White Lotus, 1993.
 ■ Rajanubhab, Damrong. Journey Through Burma in 1936: A View of Culture, History and Institutions. Bangkok: River Books, 1991.
 ■ Sangermano, Father Vincentius. A Description of the Burmese Empire, Compiled Chiefly from Burmese Documents. Translated from the Italian and Latin by William Tandy, with a preface and note by John Jardine. London: Susil Gupta, 1966.
 ■ Schramm-Evans, Zoe. Dark Ruby: Travels in a Troubled Land. London: Pandora, 2000.
 ■ Scott, James G. (Shway Yoe). The Burman, His Life and Notions. London: Macmillan, 1883; New York: Norton, 1963.
 ■ Sell, Julie. Whispers at the Pagoda: Portraits of Modern Burma. Bangkok: Orchid Press, 1999.
 ■ Shades of Gold and Green: Anecdotes of Colonial Burmah, 1886-1948. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1998.
 ■ Strachan, Paul. Mandalay: Travels from the Golden City. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1994.
 ■ Takano, Hideyuki. The Shore Beyond Good and Evil: A Report from Inside Burma's Opium Kingdom. Reno, Nev.: Kotan, 2002.
 ■ Win Pe et al. Rangoon: Green City of Grace. Rangoon: Yangon City Development Committee, 1999.
 II. HISTORY
 1. General
 ■ Cady, John F. The United States and Burma. The American Foreign Policy Library. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.
 ■ Hall, D. G. E. Burma. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1960.
 ■ Renard, Ronald D. "For the Fair Name of Myanmar: They Are Being Blotted out of Burma's History." In Burma: Myanmar in the Twenty-First CenturyDynamics of Continuity and Change. Edited by John J. Brandon. Bangkok: Thai Studies Section, Chulalongkorn University, 1997.
 ■ ---. "Minorities in Burmese History." In Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies. Edited by K. M. de Silva et al. London: Pinter Publishers, 1988.
 ■ Seekins, Donald M. The Disorder in Order: The Army-State in Burma Since 1962. Bangkok: White Lotus, 2002.
 ■ Taylor, Robert H. The State in Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.
 ■ Tinker, Hugh. The Union of Burma. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
 ■ Trager, Frank N. Burma: From Kingdom to Republic. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966.
 2. Prehistory
 ■ Ba Maw. "The First Discovery in the Evolution of Anyathian Cultures from a Single Site in Myanmar." Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2 (June 1998): 97-105.
 ■ ---. "Research on the Early Man in Myanmar." Myanmar Historical Research Journal 1 (1995): 213-20.
 ■ Hla Myo Nwe. "Sophisticated Stone Age Imagery at Padahlin." Myanmar Perspectives 5 (December 1996): 55-57.
 ■ Houtman, Gustaaf. Human Origins, Myanmafication and "Disciplined" Burmese Democracy. London: Pekhon University Press, 2000.
 ■ Nyunt Han, Win Maung, and Elizabeth Moore. "Prehistoric Grave Goods from the Chindwin and Samon River Regions." In Burma: Art and Archeology. Edited by Alexandra Green and T. Richard Blurton. Chicago: Art Media Resources, 2002.
 ■ Than Tun. "Prehistoric Researches in Myanmar." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995,Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 3. Dynastic History (1st Millennium to 19th Century CE)
 ■ Aung-Thwin, Michael. Myth and History in the Historiography of Early Burma: Paradigms, Primary Sources, and Prejudices. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1998.
 ■ ---. Pagan: The Origins of Modern Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.
 ■ Aye Kyaw. "Crimes Against Religion in the Penal Codes of Burma, Thailand and the Philippines." Journal of the Siam Society 76 (1988): 217-26.
 ■ ---. "Religion and Family Law in Burma." Journal of the Siam Society 80, no. 2 (1992): 59-65.
 ■ ---. "The Sangha Organization in Nineteenth Century Burma and Thailand." Journal of the Siam Society 72 (1984): 166-96.
 ■ ---. "Status of Women in Family Law in Burma and Indonesia." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 100-20.
 ■ Bennett, Paul J. Conference under the Tamarind Tree: Three Essays in Burmese History. Monograph Series No. 15. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asian Studies, 1971.
 ■ Charney, Michael W. "The 1598-99 Siege of Pegu and the Expansion of Arakanese Imperial Power into Lower Burma." Journal of Asian History 28, no. 1 (1994): 39-57.
 ■ ---. "A Reinvestigation of Konbaung-era Burman Historiography on the Relationship Between Arakan and Ava (Upper Burma)." Journal of Asian History 34, no. 1 (2000): 53-68.
 ■ ---. "Shallow-draft Boats, Guns, and the Aye-ra-wa-ti: Continuity and Change in Ship Structure and River Warfare in Precolonial Myanma." Oriens Extremus 40, no. 1 (1997): 16-63.
 ■ Department of History, University of Rangoon. Glimpses of Glorious Pagan. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1986.
 ■ Eleven Mon Dhammasat Texts. Translated by Nai Pan Hla and Ryuji Okudaira. Tokyo: The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for U[NESCO] (The Toyo Bunko), 1992.
 ■ Fransch, Tilman. "Some Reflections on the Burmese Dhammathat with Special Reference to the Pagan Period." In Tradition and Modernity in Myanmar 1. Edited by U. Gärtner and J. Lorenz. Münster/Hamburg: 1994.
 ■ Gutman, Pamela. "The Pyu Maitreyas." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Harvey, G. E. History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824, the Beginning of the English Conquest. London: Frank Cass, 1967.
 ■ Huxley, Andrew. "Buddhism and Law: The View from Mandalay." Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 18, no. 1 (1995): 47-95.
 ■ ---. "The Importance of the Dhammathats in Burmese Law and Culture." The Journal of Burma Studies 1 (1997): 1-17.
 ■ ---. "The Village Knows Best: Social Organization in an EighteenthCentury Burmese Law Code." Southeast Asia Research 5, no. 1 (March 1997): 21-39.
 ■ Koenig, William J. The Burmese Polity, 1752-1819: Politics, Administration, and Social Organization in the Early Kon-Baung Period. Ann Arbor: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, 1990.
 ■ Lehman, F. K. "Symposium on Societal Organization in Mainland Southeast Asia Prior to the Eighteenth Century; Freedom and Bondage in Traditional Burma and Thailand (with Discussion)." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 15 (September 1984): 233-44, 266-70.
 ■ Leider, Jacques P. "Arakan's Ascent during the Mrauk U Period." In Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia. Edited by Sunait Chutintaranond and Chris Baker. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2002.
 ■ Lieberman, V. "Political Consolidation in Burma Under the Early Konbaung Dynasty 1752-c. 1820." Journal of Asian History 30, no. 2 (1996): 152-68.
 ■ ---. "Provincial Reforms in Taung-ngu Burma." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 43, no. 3 (1980): 548-69.
 ■ ---. "Reinterpreting Burmese History." Comparative Studies in Society and History 29 (January 1987): 162-94.
 ■ ---. "The Transfer of the Burmese Capital from Pegu to Ava." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1 (1980): 64-83.
 ■ Lubeigt, Guy. "Ancient Peninsular Trade Roads and Rivalries over the Tenasserim Coasts." In Commerce et Navigation en Asie du Sud-Est, XIVeXIXe siècle (Trade and Navigation in Southeast Asia, 14th-19th Centuries). Edited by Nguyên Thê Anh and Yoshiaki Ishizawa. Paris: Harmattan, 1999.
 ■ ---. Pagan (Xe-XILLe Siècles): Capitale d'un Empire Médiéval Indochinois. Paris: Ed. Kailash, 1997.
 ■ ---. Pagan, du Passé au Présent: Contribution à la Géographie Historique d'une Capitale Médiévale Indochinoise. Paris: Ed. Kailash, 1998.
 ■ Myint Myint Than, Daw. "Mindon's Measure Against Bribery and Corruption." Historical Research Journal 1, no. 1 (1993-1994): 31-36.
 ■ Myo Thant Tyn. "Oo Shwe O: Myanmar Scientist of Konbaung Period." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Nai Pan Hla. "Old Terracota Votive Tablets and New Theories." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Okudaira Ryuji. "A Hypothetical Analysis on 'Theravâda Buddhist State at its Height' Under King Badon with Special Reference to Manugye Dhammathat (1782 Manuscript)." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Rajanubhab, Damrong. Our Wars with the Burmese: Thai-Burmese Conflict, 1539-1767. Bangkok: White Lotus, 2001.
 ■ Sunait Chutintaranond. "The Image of the Burmese Enemy in Thai Perceptions and Historical Writings." Journal of the Siam Society 80, no. 1 (1992): 89-99.
 ■ ---. "King Bayinnaung in Thai Perception, Historical Writings and Literary Works." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ ---. "Leading Port Cities in the Eastern Martaban Bay in the Context of Autonomous History." In Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia. Edited by Sunait Chutintaranond and Chris Baker. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2002.
 ■ Sunait Chutintaranond and Than Tun. On Both Sides of the Tenasserim Range: History of Siamese-Burmese Relations. Bangkok: Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, 1995.
 ■ Tamura Katsumi. "Tradition of Urban Cosmology in Burma." East Asian Cultural Studies 27 (March 1988): 49-58.
 ■ Than Tun, Dr. "A Bagan Temple's Main Gate: Is There Any Significance When It Opens in Any Other Direction Except East?" Myanmar Historical Journal Research 2 (June 1998): 106-8.
 ■ ---. Essays on the History and Buddhism of Burma. Edited by Paul Strachan. Whiting Bay, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1988.
 ■ Tun Aung Chain. "The Banya Sein Uprising 1774." Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2 (June 1998): 127-36.
 ■ ---. "The Deposition of Kyazwa: A Reconsideration of the Inscriptional Evidence." Historical Research Journal 1, no. 1 (1993-1994): 1-6.
 ■ ---. "Pegu in Politics and Trade, Ninth to Seventeenth Centuries." In Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia. Edited by Sunait Chutintaranond and Chris Baker. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2002.
 ■ Walker, Andrew. The Legend of the Golden Boat: Regulation, Trade and Traders in the Borderlands of Laos, Thailand, China, and Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.
 4. Colonial and Pacific War Era (19th-20th Centuries CE)
 ■ Allen, Lewis. Burma: The Longest War 1941-1945. London: Cassell, 2000.
 ■ Allott, Anna J. The End of the First Anglo-Burmese War: The Burmese Chronicle Account of How the 1826 Treaty of Yandabo was Negotiated. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University, 1994.
 ■ Aung San Suu Kyi. Aung San of Burma. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Kiscadale Publications, 1991.
 ■ Aung-Thwin, Michael. "'The British Pacification' of Burma: Order without Meaning." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 16 (September 1985): 245-61.
 ■ Aye Kyaw. Voice of Young Burma. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1993.
 ■ Ba Maw. Breakthrough in Burma: Memoirs of a Revolution, 1939-1946. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1968.
 ■ Bakshi, Akhil. The Road to Freedom: Travels through Singapore, Malaysia, Burma, and India in the Footsteps of the Indian National Army. New Delhi: Odyssey Books, 1998.
 ■ Bayly, Christopher, and Tim Harper. Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. London: Allen Lane, 2004.
 ■ Becˇka, Jan. "The Role of Buddhism as a Factor of Burmese National Identity in the Period of British Rule in Burma (1886-1948)." Archiv Orientalni 59 (1991): 389-405.
 ■ Bierman, John. Fire in the Night: Wingate of Burma, Ethiopia, and Zion. New York: Random House, 1999.
 ■ Bjorge, Gary J. Merrill's Marauders: Combined Operations in Northern Burma in 1944. Fort Leavenworth, Kan.: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1996.
 ■ Brookes, Stephen. Through the Jungle of Death: A Boy's Escape from Wartime Burma. London: John Murray, 2000.
 ■ Brown, Ian. "The Economic Crisis and Rebellion in Rural Burma in the Early 1930's." In Growth and Distribution and Political Change: Asia and the Wider World. Edited by Ryoshin Minami, Kwan S. Kim, and Malcolm Falkus. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1999.
 ■ ---. "Tax Remission and Tax Burden in Rural Lower Burma During the Economic Crisis of the Early 1930's." Modern Asian Studies 33, no. 2 (1999): 383-403.
 ■ Bryant, Raymond L. "Fighting over the Forests: Political Reform, Peasant Resistance and the Late Colonial Burma." Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 32 (1994): 248-65.
 ■ ---. "From Laissez-faire to Scientific Forestry: Forest Management in Early Colonial Burma, 1826-85." Forest and Conservation History 38 (1994): 160-70.
 ■ ---. The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma, 1824-1994. London: C. Hurst, 1997.
 ■ Building the Death Railway: The Ordeal of American POWs in Burma, 1942-1945. Edited by Robert S. La Forte. Wilmington, Del.: S.R. Books, 1993.
 ■ Cady, John F. "Our Burma Experience of 1935-1938." In Essays on Burma. Edited by John P. Ferguson. Contributions to Asian Studies 16. 1981.
 ■ Chaikin, Rosalind B. To My Memory Sing: A Memoir Based on Letters & Poems from Sol Chick Chaikin, an American Soldier in China, India, Burma During World War II. Monroe, N.Y.: Lib Res., 1997.
 ■ Chalker, Jack, and Edward Dunlop. Burma Railway Artist: An Artist at War in Singapore, Thailand & Burma, 1942-45. Philadelphia: Trans-Atlantic Publications, 1994.
 ■ Collis, Maurice. Into Hidden Burma: An Autobiography. London: Faber & Faber, 1953.
 ■ ---. Trials in Burma. 1938; reprint Bangkok: Ava Publishing House, 1996.
 ■ Falconer, John, David Odo, and Mandy Sadan. Burma: Frontier Photographs 1918-1935. Edited by Elizabeth Dell. London: Merrell, 2000.
 ■ Fergusson, Bernard Baron Ballantrae. Beyond the Chindwin: An Account of Number Five Column of the Wingate Expedition into Burma, 1943. Large print ed. Oxford, England: ISIS, 1999.
 ■ Fischer, Edward. The Chancy War: Winning in China, Burma, and India in World War Two. New York: Orion Books, 1991.
 ■ Fraser, George MacDonald. Quartered Safe Out Here: A Recollection of the War in Burma with a New Epilogue: Fifty Years On. London: HarperCollins, 2000.
 ■ Furnivall, John S. Colonial Policy and Practice: A Comparative Study of Burma and Netherlands India. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1948.
 ■ ---. The Fashioning of Leviathan. Canberra: The Department of Anthropology, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1991.
 ■ ---. An Introduction to the Political Economy of Burma. Rangoon: Burma Book Club, 1931.
 ■ Ghosh, Parimal. Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1825-1932. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.
 ■ Gordon, John W. Wings from Burma to the Himalayas. Prescott, Ariz.: Wolfe, 1992.
 ■ Grant, Ian. Burma 1942: The Japanese Invasion; Both Sides Tell the Story of a Savage Jungle War. Chichester, England: Zampi, 1999.
 ■ ---. Burma, the Turning Point: The Seven Battles on the Tiddim Road Which Turned the Tide of the Burma War. 2nd ed. Chichester, England: Zampi, 1995.
 ■ Gumbrell, Royston. A Man of Twenty Summers: A Personal Account of a Young Infantryman's Experiences in India and Burma during World War Two (1939-1945). n.p.: R. Gumbrell, 1999.
 ■ Hall, Leslie G. The Blue Haze: Incorporating the History of "A" Force, Groups 3 & 5, Burma-Thai Railway, 1942-1943. Kenthurst, Australia: Kangaroo, 1996.
 ■ Hayward, David K., ed.-in-chief. Eagles, Bulldogs & Tigers: History of the 22nd Bomb Squadron in China, Burma, India. Huntington Beach, Calif.: The Association, 1997.
 ■ Hellings, David. A Civil Servant in Burma: A Memoir of Harold Arrowsmith Brown. Bristol, England: J.W. Arrowsmith, 1997.
 ■ Hickey, Michael. The Unforgettable Army: Slim's 14th Army in Burma. Tunbridge Wells, England: Spellmount, 1992.
 ■ Hooker, M. B. "The 'Chinese Confucian' and the 'Chinese Buddhist' in British Burma, 1881-1947." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 21, no. 2 (September 1990): 384-401.
 ■ Htin Aung, Maung. Lord Randolph Churchill and the Dancing Peacock: British Conquest of Burma. New Delhi, 1990.
 ■ Humphreys, Roy. To Stop a Rising Sun: Reminiscences of Wartime in India and Burma. Phoenix Hill: Alan Sutton, 1996.
 ■ Izumiya Tatsuro. The Minami Organ. 2nd ed. Translated by U Tun Aung Chain. Rangoon: Higher Education Department, 1985.
 ■ Jowers, John Edward. Getting My Knees Brown: The War Diary of 14239274 Signalman John Edward Jowers, 1st January 1943-28th April 1946, While Serving in India, Burma and Thailand with 228 Indian Wing Signal Section, 6 Indian Air Formation Signals. Harrow, England: J. E. Jowers, 1997.
 ■ Khin Yi. The Dobama Movement in Burma 1930-1938. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1988.
 ■ Kin Oung. Who Killed Aung San? Bangkok: White Lotus, 1993.
 ■ Kinvig, Clifford. River Kwai Railway: The Story of the Burma-Siam Railroad. London: Brasseys, 1992.
 ■ Law-Yone, E. M. "Dr. Ba Maw of Burma." In Essays on Burma. Edited by John P. Ferguson. Contributions to Asian Studies 16. 1981.
 ■ Lewin, Ronald. Slim: The Standardbearer. Ware, England: Wordsworth Editions, 1999.
 ■ Lomax, Eric. The Railway Man. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
 ■ M & R: A Regimental History of the Sikh Light Infantry 1941-1947. Bath, England: J. D. Hookway, 1999.
 ■ MacGarrigle, George L. Central Burma. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1996.
 ■ McBride, Glen (Glenorchie). D-Day on Queen's Beach Red: An Australian's War from the Burma Road Retreat to the Normandy Beaches. Brisbane, Australia: Professor G. McBride, 1994.
 ■ McCormack, Gavan, and Hank Nelson, eds. The Burma-Thailand Railway: Memory and History. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1993.
 ■ McCrae, Alister. Scots in Burma. Edinburgh: Kiscadale Publications, 1990.
 ■ McCrae, Alister, and Alan Prentice. Irrawaddy Flotilla. Classic Works on Myanmar Studies Series. Paisley, England: James Paton, 1978.
 ■ McEnery, John H. Epilogue in Burma, 1945-48: The Military Dimension of British Withdrawal. Tunbridge Wells, England: Spellmount, 1990.
 ■ McGeoch, Ian. The Princely Sailor: Mountbatten of Burma. London: Brassey's, 1996.
 ■ Marshall, Harry I. The Karens of Burma. Burma Pamphlets 8. London: Longmans, Green, 1945.
 ■ Maung Maung, U. Burmese Nationalist Movements, 1940-1948. Edinburgh: Kiscadale Publications, 1989.
 ■ ---. From Sangha to Laity: Nationalist Movements of Burma 1920-1940. Australian National University Monographs on South Asia 4. New Delhi: Manohar, 1980.
 ■ Means, Gordon. "Human Sacrifice and Slavery in the 'Unadministered' Areas of Upper Burma During the Colonial Era." Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 15, no. 2 (October 1 1999): 184-221.
 ■ Monteiro, Irene-Anne. Camp Four-Kanburi: The True Story of a POW and Survivor of the Infamous Death Railway on the Siam-Burma Border. Edinburgh: Pentland Press, 1997.
 ■ Morgan-Jones, D., et al. "The Burma Campaigns 1942-1945." Commentary Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 146, no. 3 (2000): 256-70.
 ■ Morris, Jones, W.H. "Thirty-Six Years Later: The Mixed Legacies of Mountbatten's Transfer of Power." International Affairs 59 (Autumn 1983): 621-28.
 ■ Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, Earl. Personal Diary of Admiral the Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander, South-East Asia, 1943-1946. London: Collins, 1988.
 ■ Mukherjee, A. British Colonial Policy in Burma; An Aspect of Colonialism in South East Asia 1840-1945. New Delhi: Abhinav Pub., 1988.
 ■ Mya Han, Archbishop. "Japanese Studies in Myanmar (1910-1945)." Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2 (June 1998): 150-62.
 ■ Nagarajan, S. "Tamils of Burma and the Second World War." Bulletin of Asian Studies: Osaka University of Foreign Studies (Ajia Gaku Ronso) IV (1994): 71-84.
 ■ Naw, Angelene. Aung San and the Struggle for Burmese Independence. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2001.
 ■ Nelson, Hank, and Gavan McCormack. The Burma-Thailand Railway. Concord, Mass.: Paul & Company Publishers Consortium, 1994.
 ■ Ni Ni Myint. Burma's Struggle against British Imperialism, 1885-1895. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1983.
 ■ Painter, Robin. A Signal Honour: With the Chindits and the 14th Army in Burma. London: Leo Cooper, 1999.
 ■ Palace, Wendy. "Sir John Jordan and the Burma Border 1906-12." Asian Affairs 30, no. 3 (October 1999): 317-24.
 ■ Pearn, B. R. A History of Rangoon. Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press, 1939.
 ■ Philipps, Bob. KCS Burma: CBI Air Warning Team, 1941-1942. Manhattan, Kan.: Sunflower University Press, 1992.
 ■ Prefer, Nathan N. Vinegar Joe's War: Stilwell's Campaign for Burma. Novato, Calif.: Presido, 2000.
 ■ Richards, C. J. The Burman: an Appreciation. Burma Pamphlets 7. London: Longmans, Green, 1945.
 ■ Rooney, David. Burma Victory: Imphal, Kohima and the Chindit Issue. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1992.
 ■ Schendel, Willem Van. "Origins of the Burma Rice Boom, 1850-1880." Journal of Contemporary Asia 17, no. 4 (1987): 456-72.
 ■ ---. Three Deltas: Accumulation and Poverty in Rural Burma, Bengal and South India. Newburry Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1991.
 ■ Selth, Andrew. Australia's Relations with Colonial Burma, 1886-1947. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, Monash University, 1994.
 ■ ---. "Race and Resistance in Burma, 1942-1945." Modern Asian Studies 20 (July 1986): 483-507.
 ■ Shipster, J. N. Mist Over the Rice Fields: A Soldier's Story of the Burma Campaign 1943-45 and Korean War 1950-51. London: Leo Cooper, 2000.
 ■ Silverstein, Josef, ed. The Political Legacy of Aung San. Rev. ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1993.
 ■ Singer, Noel F. Old Rangoon: City of the Shwedagon. Gartmore, Scotland: KiscadalePublications, 1995.
 ■ Singh, Surendra Prasad. Growth of Nationalism in Burma, 1900-1942. Calcutta: Firma KLM Pvt., 1980.
 ■ Slim, William Joseph, Viscount. Defeat into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942-1945. With a new introduction by David W. Hogan Jr. New York: Cooper Square Press; distributed by National Network, 2000.
 ■ Smith, Dun. Memoirs of the Four-Foot Colonel. Southeast Asia Program Data Paper 113. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980.
 ■ Snodgrass, Judith. "Colonial Constructs of Theravâda Buddhism: Current Perspectives on Western Writing on Asian Tradition." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Stevenson, H. N. C. The Hill Peoples of Burma. Burma Pamphlets 6. London: Longmans, Green, 1945.
 ■ Tamayama, Kazuo, and John Nunneley. Tales by Japanese Soldiers. Cassell Military Paperbacks. London: Cassell, 2000
 ■ Tanabe, Hisao. "Japanese Ex-Soldiers'View on Burma Appeared in Their War Memoirs [sic]." In Burma and Japan: Basic Studies on their Cultural and Social Structures. Edited by The Burma Research Group. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 1987.
 ■ Tarling, Nicholas. The Fall of Imperial Britain in South-East Asia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1993.
 ■ Tate, D. J. M. The Making of South-East Asia. Vol. 2, The Western Impact: Economic and Social Change. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press, 1979.
 ■ Taylor, Robert H. "Disaster or Release? J. S. Furnivall and the Bankruptcy of Burma." Modern Asian Studies 29, no. 1 (February 1995): 45-64.
 ■ ---. Marxism and Resistance in Burma: Thein Pe Myint's Wartime Traveler. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1984.
 ■ Tinzar Lwyn. "The Mission: Colonial Discourse on Gender and the Politics of Burma." New Literatures Review 24 (Winter 1992): 5-22.
 ■ Turrell, Robert Vicat. "Conquest and Concession: The Case of the Burma Ruby Mines." Modern Asian Studies 22 (February 1988): 141-63.
 ■ The U.S. Army and World War II: Selected Papers from the Army's Commemorative Conferences. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1998.
 ■ Webb, G. H. "Kipling's Burma; a Literary and Historical Review." Asian Affairs 15 (June 1984): 163-78.
 ■ Wilkinson, Wynyard R. T. Indian Silver, 1858-1947: Silver from the Indian Sub-continent and Burma Made by Local Craftsmen in Western Forms. London: W. R. T. Wilkinson, 1999.
 ■ Willis, G. R. T. No Hero, Just a Survivor: A Personal Story with Beaufighters and Mosquitoes of 47 Squadron RAF over the Mediterranean and Burma 1943-1945. Huddersfield, England: Robert Willis, 1999.
 ■ Woodward, Mark R. "When One Wheel Stops: Theravada Buddhism and the British Raj in Upper Burma." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 57-90.
 ■ Yang Li. The House of Yang: Guardians of an Unknown Frontier. Sydney, Australia: Bookpress, 1997.
 ■ Yoon, Won Z. Japan's Scheme for the Liberation of Burma: The Role of the Minami Kikan and the "Thirty Comrades." Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1973.
 5. Post-Independence Era (1948-1987)
 ■ Aung-Thwin, Michael. "1948 and Burma's Myth of Independence." In Independent Burma at Forty Years: Six Assessments. Edited by Josef Silverstein. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1989.
 ■ Aye Saung. Burman in the Back Row: Autobiography of a Burmese Rebel. Hong Kong: Asia, 1989, 2000.
 ■ Badgley, John. "Burma's Military Government: A Political Analysis." Asian Survey 2, no. 6 (August 1962): 24-31.
 ■ Burma Socialist Programme Party. The System of Correlation of Man and His Environment. Rangoon: BSPP, 1973.
 ■ Callahan, Mary P. Making Enemies: War and State Building in Burma. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003.
 ■ Chao-Tzang Yawnghwe. The Shan of Burma: Memoirs of a Shan Exile. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1987.
 ■ Davies, Philip H. J. "Legacies of Secret Service: Renegade SOE and the Karen Struggle in Burma, 1948-50." In The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1945-65: Western Intelligence, Propaganda and Special Operations. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2000.
 ■ Elliott, Patricia. The White Umbrella. Bangkok: Post Books, 1999.
 ■ Maung Maung, Dr. Burma and General Ne Win. Rangoon: Religious Affairs Department Press, 1969.
 ■ Maung Maung Gyi. "Foreign Policy of Burma since 1962: Negative Neutralism for Group Survival." In Military Rule in Burma since 1962: A Kaleidoscope of Views. Edited by F. K. Lehman. Singapore: Maruzen Asia, 1981.
 ■ Mya Maung. "The Burma Road to Poverty: A Socio-Political Analysis." The Fletcher Forum 13, no. 2 (Summer 1989): 271-94.
 ■ ---. "Cultural Value and Economic Change in Burma." Asian Survey 4, no. 3 (March 1964): 757-64.
 ■ Nu, U. Saturday's Son. Translated by Edward Law-Yone. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1975.
 ■ Ono Toru. "The Development of Education in Burma." East Asian Cultural Studies 20, nos. 1-4 (March 1981): 107-34.
 ■ Raja Segaram Arumgam. "Burma: A Political and Economic Background." In Southeast Asian Affairs, 1975. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies/ Heinemann Asia, 1975.
 ■ ---. "Burma: Political Unrest and Economic Stagnation." In Southeast Asian Affairs, 1976. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies/Heinemann Asia, 1976.
 ■ Remond Htoo, Saw. "The Massacre of the University Students in Rangoon 1962, July 7." Unpublished paper presented at the Opening Ceremonies of the Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University, July 28, 1987.
 ■ Sargent, Inge. Twilight Over Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
 ■ Selth, Andrew. Death of a Hero: The U Thant Disturbances in Burma, December 1974. Research Paper 49. Brisbane, Australia: Griffith University Centre for the Study of Australian-Asian Relations, 1989.
 ■ Silverstein, Josef. Burma: Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977.
 ■ ---. Burmese Politics: The Dilemma of National Unity. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1980.
 ■ ---. "The Other Side of Burma's Struggle for Independence." Pacific Affairs 58, no. 1 (spring 1985): 98-108.
 ■ Sola, Richard. Chine-Birmanie: Histoire d'une Guerre Secrète, 1949-1954. Paris: Sudestasie, 1990.
 ■ Steinberg, David I. Burma's Road toward Development: Growth and Ideology under Military Rule. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1981.
 ■ ---. "Burma under the Military: Toward a Chronology." Contemporary Southeast Asia 3, no. 3 (December 1981): 244-85.
 ■ ---. "Burmese Economics: The Conflict of Ideology and Pragmatism." In Military Rule in Burma since 1962: A Kaleidoscope of Views. Edited by F. K. Lehman. Singapore: Maruzen Asia, 1981.
 ■ ---. "Neither Silver nor Gold: The 40th Anniversary of the Burmese Economy." In Independent Burma at Forty Years: Six Assessments. Edited by Josef Silverstein. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1989.
 ■ Thaung, U. A Journalist, A General and An Army in Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1995.
 ■ Tinker, Hugh. "Burma's Struggle for Independence: The Transfer of Power Thesis Re-examined." Modern Asian Studies 20 (July 1986): 461-81.
 ■ Tun, M. C. "Secretariat No More." In Asia Yearbook 1973. Hong Kong: Far Eastern Economic Review, 1973.
 ■ Wiant, Jon. "Tradition in the Service of Revolution: The Political Symbolism of Taw-hlan-ye-khit." In Military Rule in Burma since 1962: A Kaleidoscope of Views. Edited by F. K. Lehman. Singapore: Maruzen Asia, 1981.
 6. The Political Crisis of 1988
 ■ Aikman, David. "Armies Rampant." Time 132 (October 3, 1988): 30-32.
 ■ Aung Chin Win Aung. Burma and the Last Days of General Ne Win. Indianapolis, Ind.: Yoma, 1996.
 ■ Aung Gyi, U. "Letter to General Ne Win." Burma Debate IV, mo. 3 (July/Aug. 1997): 25-30.
 ■ Aung San Suu Kyi. Freedom from Fear and Other Writings. 2nd ed. London: Penguin, 1995.
 ■ Birth: Voices from the 1988 Uprising in Burma. Ithaca, N.Y.: Nonviolence Empowerment Organizations (NEO). "Burma (Special Section)." World Press Review 35 (November 1988): 26-28.
 ■ Burma Watcher. "Burma in 1988: There Came a Whirlwind." Asian Survey 29, no. 2 (February 1989): 174-80.
 ■ Levin, Burton. "Reminiscences & Reflections." Burma Debate 3 (1998): 4-12.
 ■ Lintner, Bertil. Outrage: Burma's Struggle for Democracy. Hong Kong: Review Publishing, 1989.
 ■ Maung Maung, Dr. The 1988 Uprising in Burma. Monograph 49. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Southeast Asia Studies, 2000.
 ■ Moksha Yitri. "The Crisis in Burma: Back from the Heart of Darkness?" Asian Survey 29, no. 6 (June 1989): 543-58.
 ■ Tanabe Hisao. Biruma Minshuka Undo-, 1988: Dokyu-mento [Document: Burma's Democracy Movement, 1988]. Tokyo: Nashi no Ki Sha, 1989.
 III. CONTEMPORARY BURMA (MYANMAR)
 1. Population, Ethnicity, and Languages
 ■ Allott, A. J., and John Okell. Burmese (Myanmar) Dictionary of Grammatical Forms. Richmond, England: Curzon, 2000.
 ■ Armstrong, Ruth M. The Kachins of Burma. Bloomington, Ind.: Eastern Press, 1997.
 ■ Ba Han, Dr. The University English-Myanmar Dictionary. Rangoon: Win Literature, 1996.
 ■ Bauer, Christian. "Language and Ethnicity: The Mon in Burma and Thailand." In Ethnic Groups Across National Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia. Edited by Gehan Wijeyewardene. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.
 ■ Chappell, Hilary. "The Benefactive Construction in Moulmein Sgaw Karen." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 15, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 11-30.
 ■ Dessaint, William, and Alain Dessaint. "Opium and Labor: Social Structure and Economic Change in the Lisu Highlands." Peasant Studies 19, nos. 3-4 (Spring-Summer 1992): 147-77.
 ■ Dessaint, William, and Avounado Ngwâma. Au Sud des Nuages: Mythes et Contes Recueillis Oralement Chez les Montagnards Lissou (Tibéto-Birmans), Paris: "L'Aube des Peuples," Editions Gallimard, 1994.
 ■ Evans, Grant, Christopher Hutton, and Khun Eng Kuah. Where China Meets Southeast Asia: Social and Cultural Change in the Border Region. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
 ■ Falla, Jonathan. True Love and Bartholomew; Rebels on the Burmese Border. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
 ■ Fiskesjö, Nils Magnus Geir. "The Fate of Sacrifice and the Making of Wa History." Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Anthropology and Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Chicago, 2000.
 ■ Forbes, Andrew D. W. "History of Panglong, 1875-1900: A'Panthay' (ChineseMuslim)." Muslim World (Hartford, Conn.) 78 (January 1988): 38-50.
 ■ Hayami, Yoko. "Karen Tradition According to Christ or Buddha-The Implications of Multiple Reinterpretations for a Minority Ethnic Group in Thailand." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27, no. 2 (September 1996): 334ff.
 ■ Hayami, Yoko, and Susan M. Darlington. "The Karen of Burma and Thailand." In Endangered Peoples of Southeast and East Asia: Struggles to Survive and Thrive. Edited by Leslie E. Sponsel et al. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, Press, 2000.
 ■ Heppner, Kevin. "Manerplaw's Federal University: An Experiment in Ethnic Harmony in the Midst of Revolution." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 16 (March 1992): 22-26.
 ■ Howard, Michael C. Textiles of the Hill Tribes of Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1999.
 ■ Kammerer, Cornelia Ann. "Customs and Christian Conversion Among Akha Highlanders of Burma and Thailand." American Ethnologist 17 (May 1990): 277-91.
 ■ Khai, Chin Khua. "Dynamics of Renewal: A Historical Movement Among the Zomi in Myanmar." Ph.D. Thesis, Intercultural Studies, Fuller Theological Seminary, 1999.
 ■ Khin Maung Kyi. "Indians in Burma: Problems of an Alien Subculture in a Highly Integrated Society." In Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1993.
 ■ Khin Maung, M. Ismael. Estimates of Burma's Mortality, Age Structure, and Fertility, 1973-83. Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Population Institute, EastWest Center, 1990.
 ■ Lintner, Bertil. The Kachin: Lords of Burma's Northern Frontier. Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia. Thailand: Teak House, 1997.
 ■ ---. Land of Jade. Edinburgh: Kiscadale Publications, 1990.
 ■ Moe K. Tun. Education for the Development of the Marginalized Karen in Burma. Bangkok: Burma Issues, 1998.
 ■ Mya Than. "Jairampur: A Profile of an Indian Community in Rural Burma." In Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1993.
 ■ Nai Pan Hla. The Significant Role of the Mon Language and Culture in Southeast Asia. Part I. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of the Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1992.
 ■ Peltier, Anatole-Roger. "Régards sur la Litterature Classique Khun de Birmanie." Bulletin De L'Ecole Française D'Extrême-Orient 87 (2000): 193-214.
 ■ Rajah, Ananda. "Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Nation-State: The Karen in Burma and Thailand." In Ethnic Groups Across National Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia. Edited by Gehan Wijeyewardene. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.
 ■ Rastorfer, Jean-Marc. On the Development of Kayah and Kayan National Identity: A Study and A Bibliography. Bangkok: Southeast Asian Publishing House, 1994.
 ■ Sakhong, Lian H. In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series No. 91. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2003.
 ■ ---. Religion and Politics Among the Chin People in Burma (1896-1949). Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2000.
 ■ South, Ashley. Mon Nationalism and Civil War in Burma: The Golden Sheldrake. London: Routledge-Curzon, 2003.
 ■ Tooker, Deborah E. "Identity Systems of Highland Burma: Belief, Akha zan, and a Critique of Interiorized Notions of Ethno-Religious Identity." Man 27 (December 1992): 799-819.
 ■ Van Bik, Rolling. "The Chin National Front and Chin Nationhood." Burma Debate III (November/December 1996): 30-33.
 ■ Wijeyewardene, Gehan. "Ethnicity Policy in Burma." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 14 (September 1991): 17.
 2. Economics and Economic Engagement
 ■ Aditjondro, George. "Dictators United: The Suharto-SLORC Business Connection." Multinational Monitor 18 (1997): 11-14.
 ■ Badgley, John. "The Burmese Way to Capitalism." In Southeast Asian Affairs 1990. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.
 ■ Brunner, Jake. Logging Burma's Frontier Forests: Resources and the Regime. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1999.
 ■ "Burma: Gas Exports-and Endless Problems Asia's Latest Gas Contender is Stifled by Its Military, Corruption and the Limited Opportunities Offered by Thailand Energy Economist." Thailand Energy Economist 226 (2000): 16-19.
 ■ Buszynski L. "Thailand and Myanmar-The Perils of Constructive Engagement." Pacific Review 11, no. 2 (1998): 290-305.
 ■ Capital Flows Along the Mekong: The Complete Guide to Investing in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar & Vietnam. 2 vols. Hong Kong: Asia Law & Practice, 1996.
 ■ Carter, George Francis. "Rice Shortage to Hit Home." Far Eastern Economic Review 136 (April 16 1987): 76.
 ■ Cook, Paul. "Myanmar: Experience with Aid and Management Development during Transition." Public Administration and Development 13, no. 4 (October 1993): 423-34.
 ■ ---. "Policy Reform, Privatization, and Private Sector Development in Myanmar." South East Asia Research (SOAS, London University) 2, no. 2 (September 1994): 117-40.
 ■ Cook, Paul and Martin Minogue. "Economic Reform and Political Change in Myanmar." World Development 21 (July 1993): 1151-61.
 ■ Country Profile. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit (annual publication). Country Report. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit (quarterly publication). Economy of Burma. Parts 1 and 2. New Delhi: Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress Office; Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, 1998-1999.
 ■ Fujisaka, Sam, Keith Moody, and Keith Ingram. "A Descriptive Study of Farming Practices for Dry Seeded Rainfed Lowland Rice in India, Indonesia, and Myanmar." Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 45 (May 1993): 115-28.
 ■ Hirouchi, Kaori. "Japan's Official Foreign Aid to Burma: Contradiction and Motivation." Master's Thesis, Clark University, 1998.
 ■ Hobson, J. S. Perry, and Roberta Leung. "Hotel Development in Myanmar: Politics and the Human-Resources Challenge." The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 38 (February 1997): 60-71.
 ■ Innes-Brown, Marc, and Mark J. Valencia. "Thailand's Resource Diplomacy in Indochina and Myanmar." Contemporary Southeast Asia 14, no. 4 (March 1993): 332-51.
 ■ Kanayama, Hisahiro. Expectations and Reality: The Economic & Political Transition of Vietnam & Myanmar. Tokyo: Institute for International Policy Studies, 1995.
 ■ Kane, Robert E., and Robert C. Kammerling. "Status of Ruby and Sapphire Mining in the Mogok Stone Tract." Gems & Gemology 27 (Fall 1992): 152-74.
 ■ Khin Maung Nyunt. Foreign Loans and Aid in the Economic Development of Burma 1974/75 to 1985/86. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Printing House, 1990.
 ■ Kiryu Minoru, ed. ASEAN and Japanese Perspectives on Industrial Development and Reforms in Myanmar: A Survey of Selected Firms. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Printing House, 1998.
 ■ ---. Industrial Development and Reforms in Myanmar: ASEAN and Japanese Perspectives. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1999.
 ■ ---. "Performance and Prospects of the Myanmar Economy." In Southeast Asian Affairs 1992. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1992.
 ■ McCarthy, Stephen. "Ten Years of Chaos in Burma: Foreign Investment and Economic Liberalization Under the SLORC-SPDC, 1988 to 1998." Pacific Affairs 73, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 233-62.
 ■ Mya Maung. "The Burma Road from the Union of Burma to Myanmar." Asian Survey 30, no. 6 (June 1990): 602-24.
 ■ ---. The Burma Road to Capitalism: Economic Growth Versus Democracy. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.
 ■ ---. The Burma Road to Poverty. New York: Praeger, 1991.
 ■ Mya Than. "Agriculture in Myanmar: What Has Happened to Asia's Rice Bowl?" In Southeast Asian Affairs 1990. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.
 ■ ---. "Economic Co-operation in the Greater Mekong Subregion." AsianPacific Economic Literature 11, no. 2 (November 1997): 40-57.
 ■ ---. "Little Change in Rural Burma: A Case Study of a Burmese Village (1960-80)." Sojourn 2, no. 1 (February 1987): 55-88.
 ■ ---. Myanmar's External Trade: An Overview in the Southeast Asian Context. ISEAS Current Economic Affairs Series. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 1992.
 ■ Mya Than and Joseph L. H. Tan, eds. Myanmar Dilemmas and Options. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1990.
 ■ Mya Than, Myat Thein, and Maw Than. Financial Resources for Development in Myanmar: Lessons from Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2000.
 ■ Myat Mon. "The Economic Position of Women in Burma." Asian Studies Review 24, no. 2 (June 2000): 243-55.
 ■ Myat Thein. "The Economics of Farm Size and Land Policy in the Transition to a Market Economy." Sojourn 12 (April 1997): 124-34.
 ■ ---. Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization in Myanmar. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1999.
 ■ Myat Thein and Maung Maung Soe. "Economic Reforms and Their Impact on Agricultural Development in Myanmar." ASEAN Economic Bulletin 15, no. 1 (April 1998): 13-29.
 ■ Nishizawa, Nobuyoshi. "Recent Economic Changes in Myanmar." Kobe University Economic Review 0, no. 40 (1994): 1-16.
 ■ Philip, Janette, and David Mercer. "Commodification of Buddhism in Contemporary Burma." Annals of Tourism Research 26, no. 1 (January 1999): 21-54.
 ■ Rana, Pradumna B., and Naved Hamid, eds. From Centrally Planned to Market Economies: The Asian Approach. Vol. 3, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press for the Asian Development Bank, 1996.
 ■ Schermerhorn, John R., Jr. "Terms of Global Business Engagement in Ethically Challenging Environments: Applications to Burma." Business Ethics Quarterly 9, no. 3 (July 1999): 485-505.
 ■ Schmidt, Michael J. "Working Elephants (Used for Logging in Burma)." Scientific American 274 (January 1996): 82-87.
 ■ Steinberg, David I. "International Rivalries in Burma: The Rise of Economic Competition." Asian Survey 30, no. 6 (June 1990): 587-601.
 ■ ---. "Japanese Economic Assistance to Burma: Aid in the 'Tarenagashi' Manner?" Crossroads 5, no. 2 (1990): 51-107.
 ■ ---. "Liberalization in Myanmar: How Real Are the Changes?" Contemporary Southeast Asia 15, no. 2 (September 1993): 161-78.
 ■ Talib, Azizah. "Monetary Policy in Myanmar: An Update (1979-1990)." In Monetary Policy in the SEACEN Countries: An Update. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN), 1993.
 ■ Walker, Andrew. "The Myanmar Trade Fair: Tachilek 21-31 December 1993." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 24 (March 1994): 8-9.
 ■ Wijeyewardene, Gehan. "Traders of Jade, Traders of Rice: The Anguish of the DAB." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 24 (March 1994): 1-4.
 ■ Wong, John. "Why Has Myanmar Not Developed Like East Asia?" ASEAN Economic Bulletin 13, no. 3 (March 1997): 344-58.
 ■ Yao Jianguo. "Sino-Myanmar Trade Develops Apace." Beijing Review 34 (August 19, 1991): 38-39.
 ■ Young, Kenneth B. An Economic Assessment of the Myanmar Rice Sector: Current Developments and Prospects. Fayetteville: Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1998.
 3. Politics
 ■ Burma Students Democratic Front. Orchestra Burma, 2000. Available at www.orchestraburma.org/politics/absdf/Absdf%20Index.htm.
 ■ Allott, Anna J. "The Media in Burma and the Pro-Democracy Movement of July-September 1988." South-East Asia Library Group Newsletter 34-35 (December 1990): 17-24.
 ■ Aung Hla. "Using the Internet in the Cyberwar Between Burma Activists and the Military Government of Burma 1998." Master's Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 1998.
 ■ Aung San Suu Kyi. Freedom from Fear and Other Writings. Rev. ed. Edited by Michael Aris. London: Penguin Books, 1995.
 ■ ---. "In Her Own Words: Interview with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi." Burma Debate IV, no. 5 (November/December 1997): 21-27.
 ■ ---. Letters from Burma. New York: Penguin, 1997.
 ■ ---. "An Opening Keynote Address: The NGO Forum on Women Beijing 1995, 31 August 1995." Burma Debate 11, no. 4 (August/September 1995): 16-19.
 ■ ---. The Voice of Hope. New York: Seven Stories Press, 1998.
 ■ Becˇka, Jan. "The Military and the Struggle for Democracy in Burma: The Presentation of the Political Upheaval of 1988 in the Official Burmese Press." Archiv Orientalni 61 (1993): 63-80.
 ■ Brown, David. "The Ethnocratic State and Ethnic Separatism in Burma." In The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge, 1994.
 ■ Burma, Country in Crisis. New York: Burma Project, Open Society Institute, 1998.
 ■ Callahan, Mary P. "Burma in 1995: Looking beyond the Release of Aung San Suu Kyi." Asian Survey 36, no. 2 (February 1996): 158.
 ■ Carey, Peter, ed. Burma: The Challenge of Change in a Divided Society. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1997.
 ■ Danitz, Tiffany, et al. Networking Dissent: Cyber Activists Use the Internet to Promote Democracy in Burma. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 2000.
 ■ Democratic Alliance of Burma. Publications. Part 1. New Delhi; Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress Office; Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, 1998.
 ■ Diller, Janelle M. "Constitutional Reform in a Repressive State: The Case of Burma." Asian Survey 33 (April 1993): 393-407.
 ■ "Extracts from a Personal Statement by Khon Mar Ko Pan Regarding the SLORC's National Convention." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 21 (June 1993): 10-12.
 ■ Fink, Christina. Living Silence: Burma under the Military Rule. New York: Zed, 2001.
 ■ Ghosh, Amitav. "Burma (Aung San and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi)." The New Yorker 72 (August 12, 1996): 38-54.
 ■ Gravers, Mikael. Nationalism as Political Paranoia in Burma. An Essay on the Historical Practice of Power. 2nd rev. ed. London: NIAS-Curzon, 1998.
 ■ Guyot, James. "Burma." In Rethinking Political Development in Southeast Asia. Edited by Norma Mahmood. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya Press, 1994.
 ■ ---. "Myanmar in 1989: Tatmadaw V." Asian Survey 30, no. 2 (February 1990): 187-95.
 ■ ---. "Myanmar in 1990: The Unconsummated Election." Asian Survey 31, no. 2 (February 1991): 205-11.
 ■ Guyot, James F., and John Badgley. "Burma in 1988: Perestroika with a Military Face." In Southeast Asian Affairs 1989. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1989.
 ■ Haseman, John B. "Burma in 1987: Change in the Air?" Asian Survey (February 1988).
 ■ ---. Destruction of Democracy: The Tragic Case of Burma. New York: Asian Affairs, 1993.
 ■ ---. "Turmoil in Burma: There Came a Whirlwind." Asian Defence Journal (August 1989).
 ■ Heppner, Kevin. "Manerplaw's Federal University: An Experiment in Ethnic Harmony in the Midst of Revolution." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 16 (March 1992): 22-26.
 ■ Herbert, Patricia. "List of Burmese Pro-Democracy [August-September 1988] Publications in the British Library." South-East Asia Library Group Newsletter 34-35 (December 1990): 25-38.
 ■ Hoffmann, Ralf. "Traditional Political Culture and the Prospects for Democracy in Burma." In Tradition and Modernity in Myanmar 3-2. Edited by U. Gärtner and J. Lorenz. Münster/Hamburg, 1994.
 ■ Houtman, Gustaaf. Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics: Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. Monograph Series 33. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1999.
 ■ International IDEA. Challenges to Democratization in Burma: Perspectives on Multi-lateral and Bilateral Perspectives. Stockholm: Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), 2001.
 ■ Leehey, Jennifer. "Message in a Bottle: A Gallery of Social/Political Cartoons from Burma." Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 25, no. 1 (1997): 151-55.
 ■ Lin Xixing. "Burma's Political Situation before the General Election." ThaiYunnan Project Newsletter 10 (September 1990): 14-17.
 ■ Lintner, Bertil. Aung San Suu Kyi and Burma's Unfinished Renaissance. Clayton, Australia: Center of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1990.
 ■ ---. Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency Since 1948. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994.
 ■ Matthews, Bruce. "Buddhism Under a Military Regime: The Iron Heel in Burma." Asian Survey 33 (April 1993): 408-23.
 ■ ---. "The Present Fortune of Tradition-Bound Authoritarianism in Myanmar." Pacific Affairs 71, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 7-23.
 ■ May, Ronald James, Emily Rudland, and Morten B. Pedersen. Burma-Myanmar: Strong Regime, Weak State? Adelaide, Australia: Crawford House Publishing, 2000.
 ■ Mya Maung. Totalitarianism in Burma: Prospects for Economic Development. New York: Paragon House, 1992.
 ■ Politics and Government in Burma. Parts 1 & 2. New Delhi; Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress Office; Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, 1999.
 ■ Rotberg, Robert I., ed. Burma: Prospects for a Democratic Future. Cambridge, Mass.: The World Peace Foundation and Harvard Institute for International Development/Brookings Institute Press, 1998.
 ■ Seekins, Donald M. "Burma in 1998: Little to Celebrate." Asian Survey 39, no. 1 (January/February 1999): 12.
 ■ ---. "Burma in 1999: A Slim Hope." Asian Survey 40, no. 1 (Jan./February 2000): 16-24.
 ■ ---. Myanmar: Secret Talks and Political Paralysis." In Southeast Asian Affairs 2002. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.
 ■ Sein Win. "Sustaining Burma's Hopes for Freedom." Journal of Democracy 5 (April 1994): 144-49.
 ■ Siemers, Gunter. "Myanmar 1992: Heading for A Guided Democracy." In Southeast Asian Affairs 1993. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1993.
 ■ Silverstein, Josef. "Aung San Suu Kyi: Is She Burma's Woman of Destiny?" Asian Survey 30, no. 10 (October 1990): 1007-19.
 ■ ---. "Burma's Uneven Struggle." Journal of Democracy 7 (October 1996): 88-102.
 ■ ---. "Change in Burma?" Current History 94 (December 1995): 440-43.
 ■ ---. "Civil War and Rebellion in Burma." Asian Survey 21, no. 1 (March 1990): 114-34.
 ■ ---. "The Idea of Freedom in Burma and the Political Thought of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi." Pacific Affairs 69 (Summer 1996): 211-28.
 ■ ---. Two Papers on Burma. Department of Social Change Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Canberra: Australian National University, 1996.
 ■ Skyful of Lies, B.B.C., V.O.A.: Their Broadcasts and Rebuttals to Disinformation. Rangoon: The News and Periodicals Enterprise, 1988.
 ■ Smith, Martin. Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. Rev. and updated ed. London: Zed Books, 1999.
 ■ Sola, Richard. Birmanie: La Révolution Kidnappée (1981-1995). Paris: L'Harmattan, 1996.
 ■ Steinberg, David I. Burma: Prospects for Political and Economic Reconstruction. Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, 1997.
 ■ ---. "Burma/Myanmar: Under the Military" In Driven by Growth: Political Change in the Asia-Pacific Region. Rev. ed. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1999.
 ■ ---. Burma, the State of Myanmar. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2000.
 ■ ---. "Crisis in Burma." Current History 88 (April 1989): 185-88.
 ■ ---. "Myanmar in 1991: The Miasma in Burma (Part of a Symposium on Asia in 1991)." Asian Survey 32 (February 1992): 146-53.
 ■ ---. "Myanmar 1991: Military Intransigence." In Southeast Asian Affairs 1992. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1992.
 ■ Sundhaussen, Ulf. "Indonesia's New Order: A Model for Myanmar?" Asian Survey 35, no. 8 (August 1995): 768-80.
 ■ Taylor, Robert H, ed. Burma: Political Economy under Military Rule. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.
 ■ ---. "Change in Burma: Political Demands and Military Power." Asian Affairs 22 (June 1991): 131-41.
 ■ ---. "The Evolving Military Role in Burma." Current History 89 (March 1990): 105-8.
 ■ Ten Years on: A Parliament Denied: Burma's Struggle to Convene the People's Parliament. Bangkok: Alternative A[SEAN] Network on Burma, 2000.
 ■ Thawnghmung, Ardeth Maung. Behind the Teak Curtain: Authoritarianism, Agricultural Policies and Political Legitimacy in Rural Burma/Myanmar. London: Kegan Paul, 2004.
 ■ Thomson, Curtis N. "Political Stability and Minority Groups in Burma." Geographical Review 85 (July 1995): 269-85.
 ■ Tin Maung Maung Than. "Myanmar Democratization: Punctuated Equilibrium or Retrograde Motion?" In Democratization in Southeast and East Asia. Edited by Anek Laothamatas. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 1997.
 ■ ---. "Neither Inheritance nor Legacy: Leading the Myanmar State since Independence." Contemporary Southeast Asia 15, no. 1 (June 1993): 24-63.
 ■ To Stand and Be Counted: The Suppression of Burma's Members of Parliament. Bangkok: All Burma Students' Democratic Front, Documentation and Research Centre, 1998.
 ■ Tortured Voices: Personal Accounts of Burma's Interrogation Centres. Bangkok: All Burma Students' Democratic Front, 1998.
 ■ Web of Conspiracy Complicated Stories of Treacherous Machinations and Intrigues of BCP UG, DAB, and Some NLD Leaders to Seize State Power. Rangoon: The News and Periodicals Enterprise, 1991.
 ■ Weller, Marc., ed. Democracy and Politics in Burma: A Collection of Documents. Manerplaw, Burma: G.P.O. of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma, 1993.
 ■ Wijeyewardene, Gehan. "The Defeat of Khun Sa." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 32 (June 1996): 3-5.
 ■ Yawnghwe, Chao-Tzang. "The Orientalization of Burmese Politics? A Research Agenda." Burma Debate VII, nos. 1 & 2 (Fall 2000): 10-13.
 ■ ---. "The Political Economy of the Opium Trade: Implications for Shan State." Journal of Contemporary Asia 23, no. 3 (1993): 306-26.
 ■ ---. "The Politics of Authoritarianism: The State and Political Soldiers in Burma, Indonesia, and Thailand." Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1997.
 4. Foreign Relations and Security-Military Affairs
 ■ Ball, Desmond. Burma and Drugs: The Regime's Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1999.
 ■ ---. Burma's Military Secrets: Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) from the Second World War to Civil War and Cyber Warfare. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1998.
 ■ Bert, Wayne. "Chinese Policy toward Democratization Movements: Burma and the Philippines." Asian Survey 30, no. 11 (November 1990): 1066-83.
 ■ Buszynski L. "Thailand and Myanmar-The Perils of Constructive Engagement." Pacific Review 11, no. 2 (1998): 290-305.
 ■ Groves, Tim. "'Burma' Joins Japan's Newspeak Blacklist." Kyoto Journal 29 (1995): 136-39.
 ■ Guay, Terence. "Local Government and Global Politics: The Implications of Massachusetts' 'Burma Law'." Political Science Quarterly 115, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 353-76.
 ■ Liang, Chi Shad. Burma's Foreign Relations: Neutralism in Theory and Practice. New York: Praeger, 1990.
 ■ Lu, Yun. "Ruili: China's Southwestern Gate to Burma." Beijing Review 30 (May 25, 1987): 22-24.
 ■ Malik, J. Mohan. "Sino-Indian Rivalry in Myanmar: Implications for Regional Security." Contemporary Southeast Asia 16, no. 2 (September 1994): 137-56.
 ■ Maung Aung Myoe. Building the Tatmadaw: The Organisational Development of the Armed Forces in Myanmar, 1948-98. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 1998.
 ■ ---. Officer Education and Leadership Training in the Tatmadaw: A Survey. Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 2000.
 ■ ---. Neither Friend nor Foe: Myanmar's Relations with Thailand since 1988: A View from Yangon. IDSS Monograph 1. Singapore: Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, 2002.
 ■ Ott, Marvin C. Burma: A Strategic Perspective. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1996.
 ■ Overholt, William H. "Dateline Drug Wars: Burma: The Wrong Enemy." Foreign Policy 77 (winter 1989/1990): 172-91.
 ■ Pradhan, Swatanter, K. New Dimensions in Indo-Burmese Relations. New Delhi: Rajat, 2000.
 ■ Saito, Teruko. "Japan's Inconsistent Approach to Burma." Japan Quarterly 39 (January/March 1992): 17-27.
 ■ Seekins, Donald M. "Burma-China Relations: Playing with Fire." Asian Survey 37, no. 6 (June 1997): 525-39.
 ■ ---. "Japan's Aid Relations with Military Regimes in Burma, 1962-1991: The Kokunaika Process." Asian Survey 32, no. 3 (March 1992): 246-62.
 ■ ---. "The North Wind and the Sun: Japan's Response to the Political Crisis in Burma, 1988-1996." Journal of Burma Studies 4 (1999): 1-33.
 ■ Selth, Andrew. Burma's Armed Forces: Power without Glory. Norwalk: Eastbridge, 2002.
 ■ Singh, S. "The Sinicization of Myanmar and Its Implications for India." Issues and Studies 33, no. 1 (January 1997): 116-33.
 ■ Steinberg, David I. "Burma/Myanmar and the Dilemmas of U.S. Foreign Policy." Contemporary Southeast Asia 21, no. 2 (August 1999): 283-311.
 ■ ---. "Japanese Economic Assistance to Burma: Aid in the 'Tarenagashi' Manner?" Crossroads 5, no. 2 (1990): 51-107.
 ■ Tin Maung Maung Than. "Burma's National Security and Defence Posture." Contemporary Southeast Asia 11, no. 1 (June 1989): 40-60.
 5. Human Rights
 ■ Allott, Anna J. Inked Over, Ripped Out: Burmese Storytellers and the Censors. New York: Pen American Center, 1993.
 ■ Amnesty International. Myanmar-Exodus from the Shan State. London: International Secretariat, 2000.
 ■ Apple, Betsy. School for Rape. Bangkok: EarthRights International, 1998.
 ■ Bamforth, Vicky, Steven Lanuouwand Graham Mortimer. Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: The Need for Considered Approaches. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Burma Ethnic Research Group, 2000.
 ■ Bangladesh/Burma: Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh, The Search for a Lasting Solution. New York: Human Rights Watch/Asia, 1997.
 ■ Burma: Children's Rights and the Rule of Law. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1998.
 ■ Burma, Entrenchment or Reform: Human Rights Developments and the Need for Continued Pressure. New York: Human Rights Watch/Asia, 1995.
 ■ Burma: Extrajudicial Execution, Torture and Political Imprisonment of Members of the Shan and Other Ethnic Minorities. London: Amnesty International, 1988.
 ■ Burma: Human Lives for Natural Resources, Oil & Natural Gas. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Southeast Asian Information Network and the All Burma Students' Democratic Front, Chiang Mai University, 1994.
 ■ Burma: Human Rights, Foreign Trade, Aid and Investments. Brussels, Belgium: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), Department of Free Trade Union Rights, 1994.
 ■ Burma/Bangladesh: Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Still No Durable Solution. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2000.
 ■ Burma/Thailand: Unwanted and Unprotected: Burmese Refugees in Thailand. London: Human Rights Watch, 1998.
 ■ Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State. Chiang Mai, Thailand: The Shan Human Rights Foundation, 1998.
 ■ Forgotten Victims of a Hidden War: Internally Displaced Karen in Burma. Bangkok: Burma Ethnic Research Group and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation (BERG), 1998.
 ■ Human Rights Violations Relevant to the 1998 United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland. Bangkok: Altsean Burma, 1998.
 ■ IMAGES/ASIA in collaboration with ALTSEAN-BURMA. Report on the Situation for Muslims in Burma. Bangkok: Forma Asia, 1997.
 ■ International Labour Organisation. Forced Labour in Myanmar (Burma): Report of the Commission of Inquiry Appointed under Article 26 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organisation to Examine the Observance by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930. Geneva: ILO, 1998.
 ■ Iyer, Venkat. Acts of Oppression: Censorship and the Law in Burma. London: Article 19, 1999.
 ■ Lang, Hazel. Fear and Sanctuary: Burmese Refugees in Thailand. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 2002.
 ■ Lewa, Chris. All Quiet on the Western Front?: The Situation in Chin State and Sagaing Division, Burma. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Images Asia, 1998.
 ■ Life in the Country: Continued Human Rights Violations in Burma (Special Emphasis on Far Southern and South-Eastern Regions: Tenasserim Division and Mon State). Bangkok: Mon Information Service, 1997.
 ■ A Modern Form of Slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand. New York: Asia Watch and The Women's Rights Project, Human Rights Watch, 1993.
 ■ Myanmar: The Climate of Fear Continues, Members of Ethnic Minorities and Political Prisoners Still Targeted. New York: Amnesty International U.S., 1993.
 ■ Myanmar: Conditions in Prisons and Labour Camps. London: Amnesty International, 1995.
 ■ Myanmar: Ethnic Minority Rights under Attack. London: Amnesty International, 1997.
 ■ Myanmar: "In the National Interest": Prisoners of Conscience, Torture, Summary Trials Under Martial Law. London: Amnesty International, 1990.
 ■ Myanmar: The Kayin (Karen) State Militarization and Human Rights. London: Amnesty International, 1999.
 ■ Myanmar-"No Law at All": Human Rights Violations under Military Rule. New York: Amnesty International, 1992.
 ■ Myanmar: Update on the Shan State. London: International Secretariat, 1999.
 ■ Myanmar (Burma): Continuing Killings and Ill-Treatment of Minority Peoples. London: Amnesty International, 1991.
 ■ People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma. Voice of the Hungry Nation. Hong Kong: Asian Human Rights Commission, 1999.
 ■ Shan Human Rights Foundation. Uprooting the Shan. Chiang Mai, Thailand: SHRF, 1996.
 ■ To Stand and Be Counted: The Suppression of Burma's Members of Parliament. Bangkok: All Burma Students' Democratic Front, Documentation and Research Centre, 1998.
 ■ Tortured Voices: Personal Accounts of Burma's Interrogation Centres. Bangkok: All Burma Students' Democratic Front, 1998.
 ■ Venkateswaran, K. S. Burma, Beyond the Law. London: Article 19, 1996.
 6. Social and Public Health Issues
 ■ Ba-Thike, Katherine. "Abortion: A Public Health Problem in Myanmar." Reproductive Health Matters (May 9, 1997): 94-100.
 ■ Beyrer, Chris. "The Health and Humanitarian Situation of Burmese Populations along the Thai-Burma Border." Burma Debate 6, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 4-13.
 ■ ---. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. Bangkok: White Lotus; London: Zed Books, 1998.
 ■ Dessaint, William, and Alain Dessaint. "Opium and Labor: Social Structure and Economic Change in the Lisu Highlands." Peasant Studies 19, nos. 3-4 (Spring-Summer 1992): 147-77.
 ■ Drug Control: U.S. Supported Efforts in Burma, Pakistan, and Thailand. Washington, D.C.: Report to Congress 1988.
 ■ Evans, Kiri. Cost Effectiveness of Primary Education in Myanmar. Rangoon: UNICEF, 1994.
 ■ Khin Maung Naing, Cho Nwe Oo, and Tin Tin Oo. "A Study on the Aetiology of Endemic Goitre in Lowland Burma." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43 (October 1989): 693-98.
 ■ Muller, H. J. "Women in Urban Burma-Social Issues and Political Dilemmas." Women's-Studies-International-Forum 17, no. 7 (November/December 1994): 609-20.
 ■ Naing Oo. "Urbanization and Economic Development in Burma." Sojourn 4, no. 2 (August 1989): 233-60.
 ■ Out of Control 2: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma: A Report on the Current Status of the HIV/AIDS and Heroin Epidemics, Policy Options and Policy Implications. Thailand: Southeast Asian Information Network, 1998.
 ■ Renard, Ronald D. The Burmese Connection: Illegal Drugs and the Making of the Golden Triangle. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1996.
 ■ Report of the Preliminary Joint Survey Team on Opium Production and Consumption in the Union of Burma." Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter 22 (September 1993): 20-23.
 ■ The Role of NGOs in Burma. Milton Keynes, England: World Vision, 1995. A Situation Analysis of Children and Women in Myanmar. Rangoon: United Nations Children's Fund, 1990.
 ■ Swan, June Angela "Utilization of Mental Health Services Among Myanmar Americans." Ph.D. Dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles, 1993.
 ■ Tin May Than and Ba Aye. "Energy Intake and Energy Output of Burmese Farmers at Different Seasons." Human Nutrition 39c (January 1985): 7-15.
 ■ Women's Report Card on Burma. Bangkok: Alternative A[SEAN] Network on Burma, 2000.
 7. Religion, Religion in Society
 ■ Barden, Stanley. The Golden Rock of Kyaik-Tiyo. Cornwall, England: United Writers, 1997.
 ■ Bates, Alice Buhl. For All Time: The Story of Ann Judson. Birmingham, Ala.: New Hope, 1998.
 ■ Bekker, Sarah M. "Transformation of the Nats: The Humanization Process in the Depiction of the Thirty-Seven Lords of Burma." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 40-45.
 ■ Benge, Janet, and Geoff Benge. Adoniram Judson: Bound for Burma. Seattle: YWAM, 2000.
 ■ Brac de la Perrière, Bénédicte. "The Burmese Nats: Between Sovereignty and Autochthony." Diogenes (International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies) 174 (1996): 45-60.
 ■ ---. "'Etre épousée par un Naq': Les Implications du Mariage avec l'Esprit dans le Culte de Possession Birman (Myanmar)." Anthropologie et Sociétes 22, no. 2.
 ■ ---. "Musique et Possession Dans le Culte des Trente Sept Naq Birmans." Cahiers de Litérature Orale 35 (1994): 177-88.
 ■ Dowling, Nancy H. "Burmese Lokapalas: A Problem of Identification." Journal of the Siam Society 70 (1982): 86-99.
 ■ Fransch, Tilman. "A Buddhist Network in the Bay of Bengal: Relations Between Bodhgaya, Burma and Sri Lanka, ca. 300-1399." In From the Mediterranean to the China Sea: Miscellaneous Notes. Edited by Glaude Guillot et al. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 1998.
 ■ ---. "An Eminent Buddhist Tradition: The Myanmar Vinayadharas." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ ---. "Some Reflections on the Burmese Dhammathat with Special Reference to the Pagan Period." In Tradition and Modernity in Myanmar 1. Edited by U. Gärtner and J. Lorenz. Münster/Hamburg, 1994.
 ■ Gatellier, Marie. "Les images du Temple Phaung Daw U sur le lac Inlé en Union de Myanmar (Birmanie)." In Péninsule Indochinoise (collectif): Notes sur la Religion et la Culture dans la Péninsule Indochinoise. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994.
 ■ Hayami, Yoko. "Karen Tradition According to Christ or Buddha-The Implications of Multiple Reinterpretations for a Minority Ethnic Group in Thailand." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27, no. 2 (September 1996): 334ff.
 ■ Houtman, Gustaaf. "The Biography of Modern Burmese Buddhist Meditation Master U Ba Khin: Life before the Cradle and Past the Grave." In Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Edited by Juliane Schober. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
 ■ Jordt, Ingrid. "Bhikkhuni, Thilashin, Mae-chii: Women Who Renounce the World in Burma, Thailand, and the Classical Pali Buddhist Texts." Crossroads 4, 1 (1988): 31-39.
 ■ Kammerer, Cornelia Ann. "Customs and Christian Conversion Among Akha Highlanders of Burma and Thailand." American Ethnologist 17 (May 1990): 277-91.
 ■ Kawanami, Hiroko. "Buddhist Nuns in Transition: The Case of Burmese ThilaShin." In Indian Insights: Buddhism, Brahmanism and Bhakti. Edited by P. Connolly and S. Hamilton. London: Luzac Oriental, 1997.
 ■ ---. "Jyosei to Bukkyo Shugyo [Women and Buddhist Practice]." In Myanma: Shinko, Matsuri, Seikatsu [Myanmar, Belief System, Festivals and Life]. Edited by R. Okudaira. Tokyo: Bijitsu, 1977.
 ■ ---."Women in Buddhism Revisited." In Women, Power and Resistance. Edited by T. Cosslett et al. Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1997.
 ■ King, Winston L. A Thousand Lives Away: Buddhism in Contemporary Burma. Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press, 1989.
 ■ Ling, Samuel Ngun. The Meeting of Christianity and Buddhism in Burma: Its Past, Present, and Future Perspectives. Tokyo: International Christian University, 1998.
 ■ Lubeigt, Guy. "Dana: From the Religious Concept to its Practical Manifestations in the Burmese Buddhist Environment Dana: du Concept Religieux à ses Manifestation Pratiques en Milieu Bouddhique Birman." Social Compass 40, no. 2 (June 1993): 233-59.
 ■ Nu, U. "Nats." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 1-12.
 ■ Ray, Niharranjan. Brahmanical Gods in Burma: A Chapter of Indian Art and Iconography. Singapore: Myanmar Rare Book Publications, 1998.
 ■ Sarkisyanz, E. Buddhist Backgrounds of the Burmese Revolution. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965.
 ■ Schendel, Jörg. "Christian Missionaries in Upper Burma, 1853-85." South East Asia Research 7, no. 1 (March 1999): 61-91.
 ■ Schober, Juliane. "Buddhist Just Rule and Burmese National Culture: State Patronage of the Chinese Tooth Relic in Myanmar." History of Religions 36 (February 1996): 218-43.
 ■ ---. "In the Presence of the Buddha: Ritual Veneration of the Burmese Mahamuni Image." In Sacred Biography in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. Edited by Juliane Schober. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
 ■ ---. "The Path to Buddhahood: The Spiritual Mission and Social Organization of Mysticism in Contemporary Burma." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (fall 1988): 13-30.
 ■ Shwedagon Zedi All-Round Perpetual Renovation Committee. Historic Record of the Hoisting of the Gold Umbrella on the Shwedagon Pagoda. Rangoon: Shwedagon Board of Trustees Office, 1999.
 ■ Spiro, Melford E. Burmese Supernaturalism. Expanded ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1996.
 ■ Strong, John S. The Legend and Cult of Upagupta. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.
 ■ ---. Relics of the Buddha. Buddhisms: A Princeton University Press Series. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004.
 ■ Temple, Richard Carnac. The Thirty-Seven Nats: a Phase of Spirit-Worship Prevailing in Burma. Arran-Edinburgh, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1992.
 ■ Tin Maung Maung Than. "The Sangha and Sasana in Socialist Burma." Sojourn 3, no. 1 (February 1988): 26-61.
 ■ Tooker, Deborah E. "Identity Systems of Highland Burma: 'Belief', Akha zan, and a Critique of Interiorized Notions of Ethno-Religious Identity." Man 27 (December 1992): 799-819.
 IV. CULTURAL EXPRESSION
 1. Literature
 ■ Allott, Anna J. "Burma." In The Traveller's Literary Companion to Southeast Asia. Edited by Alastair Dingwall. Brighton, England: In Print Publishing, 1994.
 ■ ---. "Half a Century of Publishing in Mandalay." The Journal of Burma Studies 1 (1997): 83-106.
 ■ ---. "The Study of Burmese Literature." In Southeast Asian Languages and Literatures: A Bibliographical Guide to Burmese, Cambodia, Indonesian, Javanese, Malay, Minangkabau, Thai and Vietnamese. Edited by E. Ulrich Kratz. New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 1996.
 ■ Bechert, Heinz. Burmese Manuscripts. 3 vols. Wiesbaden, Germany: Steiner, 1978-1996.
 ■ Comparative Studies on Literature and History of Thailand and Myanmar. Bangkok: Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, 1997.
 ■ Esche, Annemarie. "Myanmar Prose Writing: Traditions and Innovation in the 20th Century." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Hla Pe. Burmese Proverbs. London: John Murray, 1962.
 ■ Khin Ma Kyu. Les Femmes de Lettres Birmanes. Paris: Harmattan, 1994.
 ■ Khin Myo Chit. A Wonderland of Pagoda Legends. Illustrated by Paw Oo Thet. Rangoon: U Hla Htay, 1996.
 ■ Khin Than, U. Twelve Tales. Rangoon: Nu Yin Press & Publishing House, 1995.
 ■ Kyaw Maung Maung Nyunt. Careless Talk and Other Memories of a Myanmar Village. Rangoon: Thwe Thwe Than Publishing House, 2000.
 ■ Ma Ma Lay. Not Out of Hate. Translated by Maureen Aung-Thwin. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1991.
 ■ Minamida, Midori. "Between Fact and Fiction: Thein Pe Myint's Two Long Novels in the 1960s." Bulletin of Asian Studies: Osaka University of Foreign Studies (Ajia Gaku Ronso) III (1993): 71-118.
 ■ Saw Tun, U. "The Development of Political Themes in Min-Thuwun's Poetry." The Journal of Burma Studies 1 (1997): 107-24.
 ■ Silverstein, Josef. "Burma Through the Prism of Western Novels (Review Article)." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 16 (March 1985): 129-40.
 ■ Webb, G. H. "Kipling's Burma: A Literary and Historical Review." Asian Affairs 15 (June 1984): 163-78.
 ■ Zaw Gyi and Alan Nichols, eds. The Words Cry Out: New Writing by Burmese in Exile. Potts Point: Australia-Burma Support Group, 1995.
 2. Architecture, Plastic, and Visual Arts
 ■ "Ancient Arakan." Arts of Asia 17 (March/April 1987): 96-109.
 ■ Ancient Buddhist Art from Burma. Singapore: Taisei Gallery, 1993.
 ■ Archaeological Department, Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Pictorial Guide to Pagan. Rangoon: Ministry of Culture, 1979.
 ■ Broman, Barry. "Relics of the Raj: Colonial Architecture in Myanmar." Arts of Asia 27 (November-December 1997): 88-97.
 ■ Ciochon, Russell L., and Jamie James. "The Power of Pagan." Archaeology 45 (September/October 1992): 34-41.
 ■ Di Crocco, Virginia M. "Early Burmese Ceramics from Sriksheta and Pagan and the Problem of the Identification of the Piao Kingdom of the Chinese Chronicles." In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1990. Edited by Tam Glover. Hull, England: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, University of Hull, 1992.
 ■ ---. "Silver Coins: Evidence for Mining at Bawzaing in the Shan State Circa 6th-8th Century A.D." Journal of the Siam Society 80, no. 2 (1992): 125-28.
 ■ Dove, Victor. "Two Capitals of Burma: Pagan and Mandalay." Arts of Asia 17 (May/June 1987): 135-40; 17 (July/August 1987): 136-39.
 ■ Dumarçay, Jacques. "The Palaces of Burma." In The Palaces of South-East Asia: Architecture and Customs. Translated by Michael Smithies. Singapore: OUP, 1991.
 ■ Falconer, John, et al. Myanmar Style: Art, Architecture and Design of Burma. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions, 1998.
 ■ Fraser-Lu, Sylvia. "Ancient Arakan." Arts of Asia 17 (March/April 1987): 96-109.
 ■ ---. Burmese Crafts Past and Present. Gartmore, Stirling: Kiscadale, 1992.
 ■ ---. "Frog Drums and Their Importance in Karen Culture." Arts of Asia 13 (September-October 1983): 50-63.
 ■ ---. "Kalagas: Burmese Wall Hangings and Related Embroideries." Arts of Asia 12 (July-August 1982): 73-82.
 ■ ---. "Sadaik-Burmese Manuscript Chests." Arts of Asia 14 (May-June 1984): 68-74.
 ■ Gatellier, Marie. "Le Temple Shitthaung 'a Myohaung Depositaire Des Traditions de L'Arakan." Arts Asiatiques xlvii (1993): 110-26.
 ■ ---. "Les images du Temple Phaung Daw U sur le lac Inlé en Union de Myanmar (Birmanie)." In Péninsule Indochinoise (collectif). Notes sur la Religion et la Culture dans la Péninsule Indochinoise. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994.
 ■ Green, Alexandra, and T. Richard Blurton. Burma: Art and Archaeology. London: The British Museum, 2002.
 ■ Hasson, Haskia. Ancient Buddhist Art from Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1993.
 ■ Hein, Don. "Ceramic Production in Myanmar-Further Evidence on Old Traditions." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Herbert, Patricia. The Art of the Painted Books in Burma. Edinburgh: Kiscadale Publications, 1991.
 ■ Howard, Michael C. Textiles of the Hill Tribes of Burma. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1999.
 ■ Isaacs, Ralph, and Richard T. Blurton. Visions from the Golden Land: Burma and the Art of Lacquer. London: British Museum, 2000.
 ■ Karow, Otto. Burmese Buddhist Sculpture: The Johan Moger Collection. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1991.
 ■ Le Bonheur, Albert. "Bronze Burmese Buddha Acquired by the Musée Guimet, Paris." Arts Asiatiques 45 (1990): 126-27.
 ■ Lefferts, H. Leedom Jr. "Contemporary Burmese Earthenware." Crossroads 4, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 121-27.
 ■ Lubeigt, Guy. Shwe-Gyi-Htô, l'art de la Tapisserie Brodée en Birmanie. Paris: Ed. Kailash, in press.
 ■ ---. "Vernacular Architecture of Some Ethnic Minorities in Burma (Shan, Môn, Kachin, Yakaing, Chin)." In Encyclopaedia of Vernacular World Architecture. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
 ■ Mitchiner, Michael. "The Date of the Early Funanese, Mon, Pyu, and Arakanese Coinages ('Symbolic Coins')." Journal of the Siam Society 70 (1982): 5-12.
 ■ Moilanen, Irene. "Last of the Great Masters? Woodcarving Traditions in Myanmar, Past and Present (Buddhism)." Ph.D. Dissertation, Jyvaskylan Yliopisto, Finland, 1995.
 ■ Moilanen, Irene, and Sergey S. Ozhegov. Mirrored in Wood: Burmese Art and Architecture. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1999.
 ■ Moore, Elizabeth H. "Contemporary Paintings in Burma." Arts of Asia 22 (September/October 1992): 150-53.
 ■ ---. "Monasteries of Mandalay: Variation in Architecture and Patronage." In Traditions in Current Perspective: Proceedings of the Conference on Myanmar and Southeast Asian Studies 15-17 November 1995, Yangon. Rangoon: The Universities Press, 1996.
 ■ Moore, Elizabeth, and San San Maw. "Flights of Fancy, Hintha and Kinnaya, the Avian Inspiration in Myanmar Art." Oriental Art 41, no. 2 (1995): 25-31.
 ■ Moore, Elizabeth H., Hansjorg Meyer, and U Win Pe. Shwedagon: Golden Pagoda of Myanmar. London: Thames and Hudson, 1999.
 ■ Pichard, Pierre. Inventory of Monuments at Pagan. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1992.
 ■ ---. The Pentagonal Monuments of Pagan. Bangkok: White Lotus, 1991.
 ■ ---. "Sous Les Voûtes De Pagan." Arts Asiatiques xlvii (1993): 86-109.
 ■ Reith, Charlotte. "Comparison of Three Pottery Villages in Shan State, Burma." The Journal of Burma Studies 1 (1997): 45-82.
 ■ Shwe Mann Maung. "The Largest Alloy Buddha Image." Myanmar Perspectives 2 (April 1997): 82-83.
 ■ Singer, Noel F. Old Rangoon, City of the Shwedagon. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale Publications, 1995.
 ■ ---. "Palm Leaf Manuscripts of Myanmar, Burma." Arts of Asia 21 (January/ February 1991): 133-40.
 ■ Stadtner, Donald M. "An 'Extraordinary Folly'?" Archaeology 53, no. 3 (May/June 2000): 54-59.
 ■ ---. "A Fifteenth-Century Royal Monument in Burma and the Seven Stations in Buddhist Art." Art Bulletin 73 (March 1991): 39-52.
 ■ Than Tun, Dr. "A Bagan Temple's Main Gate: Is There any Significance When It Opens in Any Other Direction Except East?" Myanmar Historical Journal Research 2 (June 1998): 106-8.
 ■ Thanegi, M. "Traditional Myanmar Pottery." Arts of Asia 27, no. 1 (JanuaryFebruary 1997): 66-70.
 3. Performing Arts
 ■ Diamond, Catherine. "Burmese Nights: The Pagoda Festival Pwe in the Age of Hollywood's 'Titanic'." New Theatre Quarterly 16, no. 3 (August 2000): 227-48.
 ■ Khin Mya Kyu. "The Music of Myanmar." Unesco Courier 45 (March 1992): 48-49.
 ■ Maung Sein Tun. Best of the Best Jokes of Zar Ga Na. Long Beach, Calif.: Maung Sein Tun, n.d.
 ■ Thanegi, Ma. The Illusion of Life: Burmese Marionettes. Bangkok: White Orchid, 1994.
 ■ White Elephants and Golden Ducks: Enchanting Musical Treasures from Burma. San Francisco: Ko Ko Lay, n.d.
 ■ Win Pe. "The Myanmar Female Solo Dance." Myanmar Perspectives II (April 1997): 41-42.
 ■ ---. "Myanmar Pure Dance." Myanmar Perspectives II (June 1997): 30-32.

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  • Bibliography — (from Greek gr. βιβλιογραφία, bibliographia , literally book writing ), as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Greek gr. λογία, logia ). On the whole,… …   Wikipedia

  • Bibliography — Bib li*og ra*phy (b[i^]b l[i^]*[o^]g r[.a]*f[y^]) n.; pl. {Bibliographies}. [Gr. bibliografi a: cf. F. bibliographie.] 1. a history or description of books and manuscripts, with notices of the different editions, the times when they were printed …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bibliography — 1670s, the writing of books, from Gk. bibliographia the writing of books, from BIBLIO (Cf. biblio ) + graphos (something) drawn or written. Sense of a list of books that form the literature of a subject is first attested 1869. Related:… …   Etymology dictionary

  • bibliography — ► NOUN (pl. bibliographies) 1) a list of books or documents on a particular subject or by a particular author. 2) the study of books in terms of their classification, printing, and publication. 3) a list of the books referred to in a scholarly… …   English terms dictionary

  • bibliography — [bib΄lē äg′rə fē] n. pl. bibliographies [Gr bibliographia: see BIBLIO & GRAPHY] 1. the study of the editions, dates, authorship, etc. of books and other writings 2. a book containing such information 3. a list of sources of information on a given …   English World dictionary

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY — As in general bibliography, the development of Hebrew bibliography is characterized by the transition from brief listings to more detailed catalogues. The listing of the books of the Bible which appears in the Talmud (BB 14b, 15a) had as its… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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